Bits and Bytes

Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network

Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value?
So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!

Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels

Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product.
Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger.
Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore.
In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction.
So what you'd do would be something like this:
  1. You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
  2. For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
  3. For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
  4. Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
    • You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
    • You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time.
Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
  1. Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
  2. Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
  3. When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
  4. Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
  5. The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
  6. Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
  7. The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
  8. Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
  9. I think I got sidetracked here.
Lessons learned?

Spilman Channels

Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is).
Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender.
Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender.
First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
  1. You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
  2. You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
  3. The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
  4. Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds.
So now you start ordering in this way:
  1. For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
  2. You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
  3. For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
  4. At the end:
    • If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
    • If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
    • If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen.
So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx...
Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly.
"I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says.
"Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!"
"Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed."
"What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer.
What you see shocks you.
"What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!"
"Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW."
Lesson learned?

CLTV-protected Spilman Channels

Using CLTV for the backoff branch.
This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015.
Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed.
This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction.
With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to.
Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time".
With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.

Todd Micropayment Networks

The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works).
One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel.
Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable.
So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user).
In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today.
Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy.
Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.

Poon-Dryja Lightning Network

Bidirectional two-participant channels.
The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel.
The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online.
Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want.
Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening.
With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow.
I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere.
There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network.
Lessons learned?

Future

After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time.
The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory).
Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough.
Lessons learned?
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

batching in Bitcoin

On May 6th, 2017, Bitcoin hit an all-time high in transactions processed on the network in a single day: it moved 375,000 transactions which accounted for a nominal output of about $2.5b. Average fees on the Bitcoin network had climbed over a dollar for the first time a couple days prior. And they kept climbing: by early June average fees hit an eye-watering $5.66. This was quite unprecedented. In the three-year period from Jan. 1 2014 to Jan. 1 2017, per-transaction fees had never exceeded 31 cents on a weekly average. And the hits kept coming. Before 2017 was over, average fees would top out at $48 on a weekly basis. When the crypto-recession set in, transaction count collapsed and fees crept back below $1.
During the most feverish days of the Bitcoin run-up, when normal users found themselves with balances that would cost more to send than they were worth, cries for batching — the aggregation of many outputs into a single transaction — grew louder than ever. David Harding had written a blog post on the cost-savings of batching at the end of August and it was reposted to the Bitcoin subreddit on a daily basis.
The idea was simple: for entities sending many transactions at once, clustering outputs into a single transaction was more space- (and cost-) efficient, because each transaction has a fixed data overhead. David found that if you combined 10 payments into one transaction, rather than sending them individually, you could save 75% of the block space. Essentially, batching is one way to pack as many transactions as possible into the finite block space available on Bitcoin.
When fees started climbing in mid-2017, users began to scrutinize the behavior of heavy users of the Bitcoin blockchain, to determine whether they were using block space efficiently. By and large, they were not — and an informal lobbying campaign began, in which these major users — principally exchanges — were asked to start batching transactions and be good stewards of the scarce block space at their disposal. Some exchanges had been batching for years, others relented and implemented it. The question faded from view after Bitcoin’s price collapsed in Q1 2018 from roughly $19,000 to $6000, and transaction load — and hence average fee — dropped off.
But we remained curious. A common refrain, during the collapse in on-chain usage, was that transaction count was an obfuscated method of apprehending actual usage. The idea was that transactions could encode an arbitrarily large (within reason) number of payments, and so if batching had become more and more prevalent, those payments were still occurring, just under a regime of fewer transactions.

“hmmm”
Some sites popped up to report outputs and payments per day rather than transactions, seemingly bristling at the coverage of declining transaction count. However, no one conducted an analysis of the changing relationship between transaction count and outputs or payments. We took it upon ourselves to find out.
Table Of Contents:
Introduction to batching
A timeline
Analysis
Conclusion
Bonus content: UTXO consolidation
  1. Introduction to batching
Bitcoin uses a UTXO model, which stands for Unspent Transaction Output. In comparison, Ripple and Ethereum use an account/balance model. In bitcoin, a user has no balances, only UTXOs that they control. If they want to transfer money to someone else, their wallet selects one or more UTXOs as inputs that in sum need to add up to the amount they want to transfer. The desired amount then goes to the recipient, which is called the output, and the difference goes back to the sender, which is called change output. Each output can carry a virtually unlimited amount of value in the form of satoshis. A satoshi is a unit representing a one-hundred-millionth of a Bitcoin. This is very similar to a physical wallet full of different denominations of bills. If you’re buying a snack for $2.50 and only have a $5, you don’t hand the cashier half of your 5 dollar bill — you give him the 5 and receive some change instead.
Unknown to some, there is no hardcoded limit to the number of transactions that can fit in a block. Instead, each transaction has a certain size in megabytes and constitutes an economic incentive for miners to include it in their block. Because miners have limited space of 2 MB to sell to transactors, larger transactions (in size, not bitcoin!) will need to pay higher fees to be included. Additionally, each transaction can have a virtually unlimited number of inputs or outputs — the record stands at transactions with 20,000 inputs and 13,107 outputs.
So each transaction has at least one input and at one output, but often more, as well as some additional boilerplate stuff. Most of that space is taken up by the input (often 60% or more, because of the signature that proves they really belong to the sender), while the output(s) account for 15–30%. In order to keep transactions as small as possible and save fees, Bitcoin users have two major choices:
Use as few inputs as possible. In order to minimize inputs, you can periodically send your smaller UTXOs to yourself in times when fees are very low, getting one large UTXO back. That is called UTXO consolidation or consolidating your inputs.
Users who frequently make transfers (especially within the same block) can include an almost unlimited amount of outputs (to different people!) in the same transaction. That is called transaction batching. A typical single output transaction takes up 230 bytes, while a two output transaction only takes up 260 bytes, instead of 460 if you were to send them individually.
This is something that many casual commentators overlook when comparing Bitcoin with other payment systems — a Bitcoin transaction can aggregate thousands of individual economic transfers! It’s important to recognize this, as it is the source of a great deal of misunderstanding and mistaken analysis.
We’ve never encountered a common definition of a batched transaction — so for the purposes of this study we define it in the loosest possible sense: a transaction with three or more outputs. Commonly, batching is understood as an activity undertaken primarily by mining pools or exchanges who can trade off immediacy for efficiency. It is rare that a normal bitcoin user would have cause to batch, and indeed most wallets make it difficult to impossible to construct batched transactions. For everyday purposes, normal bitcoiners will likely not go to the additional effort of batching transactions.
We set the threshold at three for simplicity’s sake — a normal unbatched transaction will have one transactional output and one change output — but the typical major batched transaction from an exchange will have dozens if not hundreds of outputs. For this reason we are careful to provide data on various different batch sizes, so we could determine the prevalence of three-output transactions and colossal, 100-output ones.
We find it helpful to think of a Bitcoin transaction as a mail truck full of boxes. Each truck (transaction) contains boxes (outputs), each of contains some number of letters (satoshis). So when you’re looking at transaction count as a measure of the performance and economic throughput of the Bitcoin network, it’s a bit like counting mail trucks to discern how many letters are being sent on a given day, even though the number of letters can vary wildly. The truck analogy also makes it clear why many see Bitcoin as a settlement layer in the future — just as mail trucks aren’t dispatched until they’re full, some envision that the same will ultimately be the case for Bitcoin.

Batching
  1. A timeline
So what actually happened in the last six months? Let’s look at some data. Daily transactions on the Bitcoin network rose steadily until about May 2017, when average fees hit about $4. This precipitated the first collapse in usage. Then began a series of feedback loops over the next six months in which transaction load grew, fees grew to match, and transactions dropped off. This cycle repeated itself five times over the latter half of 2017.

more like this on coinmetrics.io
The solid red line in the above chart is fees in BTC terms (not USD) and the shaded red area is daily transaction count. You can see the cycle of transaction load precipitating higher fees which in turn cause a reduction in usage. It repeats itself five or six times before the detente in spring 2018. The most notable period was the December-January fee crisis, but fees were actually fairly typical in BTC terms — the rising BTC price in USD however meant that USD fees hit extreme figures.
In mid-November when fees hit double digits in USD terms, users began a concerted campaign to convince exchanges to be better stewards of block space. Both Segwit and batching were held up as meaningful approaches to maximize the compression of Bitcoin transactions into the finite block space available. Data on when exchanges began batching is sparse, but we collected information where it was available into a chart summarizing when exchanges began batching.

Batching adoption at selected exchanges
We’re ignoring Segwit adoption by exchanges in this analysis; as far as batching is concerned, the campaign to get exchanges to batch appears to have persuaded Bitfinex, Binance, and Shapeshift to batch. Coinbase/GDAX have stated their intention to begin batching, although they haven’t managed to integrate it yet. As far as we can tell, Gemini hasn’t mentioned batching, although we have some mixed evidence that they may have begun recently. If you know about the status of batching on Gemini or other major exchanges please get in touch.
So some exchanges have been batching all along, and some have never bothered at all. Did the subset of exchanges who flipped the switch materially affect the prevalence of batched transactions? Let’s find out.
  1. Analysis
3.1 How common is batching?
We measured the prevalence of batching in three different ways, by transaction count, by output value and by output count.

The tl;dr.
Batching accounts for roughly 12% of all transactions, 40% of all outputs, and 30–60% of all raw BTC output value. Not bad.
3.2 Have batched transactions become more common over time?
From the chart in 3.1, we can already see a small, but steady uptrend in all three metrics, but we want to dig a little deeper. So we first looked at the relationship of payments (all outputs that actually pay someone, so total outputs minus change outputs) and transactions.

More at transactionfee.info/charts
The first thing that becomes obvious is that the popular narrative — that the drop in transactions was caused by an increase in batching — is not the case; payments dropped by roughly the same proportion as well.
Dividing payment count by transaction count gives us some insight into the relationship between the two.

In our analysis we want to zoom into the time frame between November 2017 and today, and we can see that payments per transactions have actually been rallying, from 1.5 payments per transaction in early 2017 to almost two today.
3.3 What are popular batch sizes?
In this next part, we will look at batch sizes to see which are most popular. To determine which transactions were batched, we downloaded a dataset of all transactions on the Bitcoin network between November 2017 and May 2018from Blockchair.
We picked that period because the fee crisis really got started in mid-November, and with it, the demands for exchanges to batch. So we wanted to capture the effect of exchanges starting to batch. Naturally a bigger sample would have been more instructive, but we were constrained in our resources, so we began with the six month sample.
We grouped transactions into “batched” and “unbatched” groups with batched transactions being those with three or more outputs.

We then divided batched transactions into roughly equal groups on the basis of how much total output in BTC they had accounted for in the six-month period. We didn’t select the batch sizes manually — we picked batch sizes that would split the sample into equal parts on the basis of transaction value. Here’s what we ended up with:

All of the batch buckets have just about the same fraction of total BTC output over the period, but they account for radically different transaction and output counts over the period. Notice that there were only 183,108 “extra large” batches (with 41 or more outputs) in the six-month period, but between them there were 23m outputs and 30m BTC worth of value transmitted.
Note that output value in this context refers to the raw or unadjusted figure — it would have been prohibitively difficult for us to adjust output for change or mixers, so we’re using the “naive” estimate.
Let’s look at how many transactions various batch sizes accounted for in the sample period:


Batched transactions steadily increased relative to unbatched ones, although the biggest fraction is the small batch with between 3 and 5 outputs. The story for output counts is a bit more illuminating. Even though batched transactions are a relatively small fraction of overall transaction count, they contain a meaningful number of overall outputs. Let’s see how it breaks down:


Lastly, let’s look at output value. Here we see that batched transactions represent a significant fraction of value transmitted on Bitcoin.


As we can see, even though batched transactions make up an average of only 12% of all transactions, they move between 30%-60% of all Bitcoins, at peak times even 70%. We think this is quite remarkable. Keep in mind, however that the ‘total output’ figure has not been altered to account for change outputs, mixers, or self-churn; that is, it is the raw and unadjusted figure. The total output value is therefore not an ideal approximation of economic volume on the Bitcoin network.
3.4 Has transaction count become an unreliable measure of Bitcoin’s usage because of batching?
Yes. We strongly encourage any analysts, investors, journalists, and developers to look past mere transaction count from now on. The default measure of Bitcoin’s performance should be “payments per day” rather than transaction count. This also makes Bitcoin more comparable with other UTXO chains. They generally have significantly variable payments-per-transaction ratios, so just using payments standardizes that. (Stay tuned: Coinmetrics will be rolling out tools to facilitate this very soon.)
More generally, we think that the economic value transmitted on the network is its most fundamental characteristic. Both the naive and the adjusted figures deserve to be considered. Adjusting raw output value is still more art than science, and best practices are still being developed. Again, Coinmetrics is actively developing open-source tools to make these adjustments available.
  1. Conclusion
We started by revisiting the past year in Bitcoin and showed that while the mempool was congested, the community started looking for ways to use the blockspace more efficiently. Attention quickly fell on batching, the practice of combining multiple outputs into a single transaction, for heavy users. We showed how batching works on a technical level and when different exchanges started implementing the technique.
Today, around 12% of all transactions on the Bitcoin network are batched, and these account for about 40% of all outputs and between 30–60% of all transactional value. The fact such that a small set of transactions carries so much economic weight makes us hopeful that Bitcoin still has a lot of room to scale on the base layer, especially if usage trends continue.
Lastly, it’s worth noting that the increase in batching on the Bitcoin network may not be entirely due to deliberate action by exchanges, but rather a function of its recessionary behavior in the last few months. Since batching is generally done by large industrial players like exchanges, mixers, payment processors, and mining pools, and unbatched transactions are generally made by normal individuals, the batched/unbatched ratio is also a strong proxy for how much average users are using Bitcoin. Since the collapse in price, it is quite possible that individual usage of Bitcoin decreased while “industrial” usage remained strong. This is speculation, but one explanation for what happened.
Alternatively, the industrial players appear to be taking their role as stewards of the scarce block space more seriously. This is a significant boon to the network, and a nontrivial development in its history. If a culture of parsimony can be encouraged, Bitcoin will be able to compress more data into its block space and everyday users will continue to be able to run nodes for the foreseeable future. We view this as a very positive development. Members of the Bitcoin community that lobbied exchanges to add support for Segwit and batching should be proud of themselves.
  1. Bonus content: UTXO consolidation
Remember that we said that a second way to systematically save transaction fees in the Bitcoin network was to consolidate your UTXOs when fees were low? Looking at the relationship between input count and output count allows us to spot such consolidation phases quite well.

Typically, inputs and outputs move together. When the network is stressed, they decouple. If you look at the above chart carefully, you’ll notice that when transactions are elevated (and block space is at a premium), outputs outpace inputs — look at the gaps in May and December 2017. However, prolonged activity always results in fragmented UTXO sets and wallets full of dust, which need to be consolidated. For this, users often wait until pressure on the network has decreased and fees are lower. Thus, after transactions decrease, inputs become more common than outputs. You can see this clearly in February/March 2017.

Here we’ve taken the ratio of inputs to outputs (which have been smoothed on a trailing 7 day basis). When the ratio is higher, there are more inputs than outputs on that day, and vice versa. You can clearly see the spam attack in summer 2015 in which thousands (possibly millions) of outputs were created and then consolidated. Once the ratio spikes upwards, that’s consolidation. The spike in February 2018 after the six weeks of high fees in December 2017 was the most pronounced sigh of relief in Bitcoin’s history; the largest ever departure from the in/out ratio norm. There were a huge number of UTXOs to be consolidated.
It’s also interesting to note where inputs and outputs cluster. Here we have histograms of transactions with large numbers of inputs or outputs. Unsurprisingly, round numbers are common which shows that exchanges don’t publish a transaction every, say, two minutes, but instead wait for 100 or 200 outputs to queue up and then publish their transaction. Curiously, 200-input transactions were more popular than 100-input transactions in the period.


We ran into more curiosities when researching this piece, but we’ll leave those for another time.
Future work on batching might focus on:
Determining batched transactions as a portion of (adjusted) economic rather than raw volume
Looking at the behavior of specific exchanges with regards to batching
Investigating how much space and fees could be saved if major exchanges were batching transactions
Lastly, we encourage everyone to run their transactions through the service at transactionfee.info to assess the efficiency of their transactions and determine whether exchanges are being good stewards of the block space.
Update 31.05.2018
Antoine Le Calvez has created a series of live-updated charts to track batching and batch sizes, which you can find here.
We’d like to thank 0xB10C for their generous assistance with datasets and advice, the people at Blockchair for providing the core datasets, and David A. Harding for writing the initial piece and answering our questions.
submitted by miguelfranco1412 to 800cc [link] [comments]

The Most Eventful Day in Bitcoin History

Bitcoin's network split called off

The proposed software upgrade or “hard fork” to occur on Nov. 16 was canceled on Nov. 8, due to disagreements between many prominent CEOs and key players in the Bitcoin space.
The SegWit 2X fork would have increased the block size from 1 to 2 megabytes and thereby double transaction capacity on the network. This upgrade was aimed at helping the scalability of Bitcoin. However, following a lack of consensus within the community, implementing the hard fork was suspended. In fact, it has always been a controversial topic — many Bitcoin companies have not actively supported the move. The main fear was that it would split the community into two branches.
Mike Belshe, CEO and co-founder of a major Bitcoin wallet provider BitGo, announced the cancellation in an email on November 8. One of the leaders of the Segwit2x project, he argued that the scaling proposal is too controversial to move forward:
Although we strongly believe in the need for a larger block size, there is something we believe is even more important: keeping the community together. Unfortunately, it is clear that we have not built sufficient consensus for a clean block size upgrade at this time. Continuing on the current path could divide the community and be a setback to Bitcoin’s growth.
BitGo’s Mike Belshe, Xapo’s Wences Casares, Bitmain’s Jihan Wu, Bloq’s Jeff Garzik, Blockchain’s Peter Smith and Shapeshift’s Erik Voorhees all signed the statement.
Quickly following this news, Bitcoin’s price hit an all-time high as people were glad that the community divide seemed over. However, that euphoria soon faded as the reality kicked in that fundamental issues with Bitcoin remained.

What does this mean for the future of Bitcoin?

Well, no one really knows, but here's a bit of insight as to what we think could happen.
In 2017, the Bitcoin network capacity hit the “invisible wall.” Fees skyrocketed, and Bitcoin became unreliable, with some users unable to get their transactions confirmed, even after days of waiting. Today, people are paying up to $25 USD for a transaction to be processed, which says a lot about the usefulness of Bitcoin.
Bitcoin usage stopped growing; its market share among other cryptocurrencies plummeted from 95 to 40 percent as many users, merchants, businesses and investors abandoned it.
The cancellation of SegWit 2X leaves two competing bitcoin chains now: Bitcoin SegWit 1X (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH). With SegWit, data is stored differently in each block, which improves the capacity of the blockchain, however only marginally compared to the capacity available with the Bitcoin Cash blockchain.
The improvement in capacity from SegWit 1X is 70 percent with no plans for any more significant updates within at least the next 18 to 24 months. The SegWit upgrade is a small capacity increase at best, and it's already showing it's not going to handle exponential growth or worldwide adoption.
Bitcoin Cash was born on August 1, 2017, as a result of a few major players from the very early days of Bitcoin becoming fed up with the direction the cryptocurrency was headed. Bitcoin Cash immediately raised the transaction capacity by 800 percent as part of a massive on-chain scaling approach. Currently, there is ample capacity for everyone's transactions, and huge developmental progress has been made to allow massive capacity increases up to 1000 times the current BTC SegWit network. This means low fees and fast confirmations for everyone.
However, Bitcoin cash is still quite far behind, so which bitcoin will win?

Let's start at the beginning...

In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, published a paper titled, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” Most people are aware of this, but the exact title needs to be repeated because today, even the most basic facets of Bitcoin are being challenged.
Regardless of “which side” of the scaling debate you are on, it should not be contested that Satoshi always planned for and advocated simple, on-chain scaling. (On-chain scaling is a term that basically means using the Bitcoin network itself to process all transactions.
Unfortunately, this is not the proposed plan of the Bitcoin network’s core development team. They intend to implement a supplementary technology called the “Lightning Network” to process the extra transactions that Bitcoin can't handle. Not yet proven to work, this technology is at least 18 to 24 months away from being ready. It also takes Bitcoin in a much more centralized direction as a small group of people will be running this secondary transaction layer, earning money from fees and controlling how it works.
Giving a small group of people this sort of control sounds pretty familiar, don't you think? Reminds us of a thing called the USD? We need to get away from this.
We KNOW that on-chain transactions work; they've worked for 9 years, and scaling on Bitcoin Cash is working.

Now to today...

It seems more and more users, merchants, businesses and investors are beginning to realize this. Today, we've seen the biggest “pump” in cryptocurrency history, with Bitcoin Cash going from a low at $1,280 USD to a high of $2,799 USD. Peaking at a whopping $41 Billion USD market cap, almost tripling in 36 hours, and to top it off, the trading volume was $11.5 billion USD in 24 hours.
We've never seen numbers like this, and it's happening for a reason. The potential for Bitcoin was so great; however, it went off in the wrong direction due to a small group of people who wanted to control it.
Today, Bitcoin Cash has made huge progress on the “flippening,” a term used by many in the community referring to the possible future event when Bitcoin Cash overtakes Bitcoin to become the most valuable cryptocurrency in terms of market capitalization.
If the flippening occurs, there's a very bright future for Bitcoin Cash. The aim is for it to become a world currency used by billions of people, one that does not discriminate based on levels of wealth, one that is equally usable to those earning $1 a day or companies earning billions.
Right now, one billion people are living in slums. They cannot hope to escape without some international form of trade. This can be achieved with access to secure and low cost money, which is what Bitcoin Cash delivers. We hope that in the next decade, Bitcoin Cash starts to offer hope and a way out of poverty.
*This article was written by one of the crypto consultants at decrypt
submitted by decrypt-how to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

The Most Eventful Day in Bitcoin History

Bitcoin's network split called off

The proposed software upgrade or “hard fork” to occur on Nov. 16 was canceled on Nov. 8, due to disagreements between many prominent CEOs and key players in the Bitcoin space.
The SegWit 2X fork would have increased the block size from 1 to 2 megabytes and thereby double transaction capacity on the network. This upgrade was aimed at helping the scalability of Bitcoin. However, following a lack of consensus within the community, implementing the hard fork was suspended. In fact, it has always been a controversial topic — many Bitcoin companies have not actively supported the move. The main fear was that it would split the community into two branches.
Mike Belshe, CEO and co-founder of a major Bitcoin wallet provider BitGo, announced the cancellation in an email on November 8. One of the leaders of the Segwit2x project, he argued that the scaling proposal is too controversial to move forward:
Although we strongly believe in the need for a larger block size, there is something we believe is even more important: keeping the community together. Unfortunately, it is clear that we have not built sufficient consensus for a clean block size upgrade at this time. Continuing on the current path could divide the community and be a setback to Bitcoin’s growth.
BitGo’s Mike Belshe, Xapo’s Wences Casares, Bitmain’s Jihan Wu, Bloq’s Jeff Garzik, Blockchain’s Peter Smith and Shapeshift’s Erik Voorhees all signed the statement.
Quickly following this news, Bitcoin’s price hit an all-time high as people were glad that the community divide seemed over. However, that euphoria soon faded as the reality kicked in that fundamental issues with Bitcoin remained.

What does this mean for the future of Bitcoin?

Well, no one really knows, but here's a bit of insight as to what we think could happen.
In 2017, the Bitcoin network capacity hit the “invisible wall.” Fees skyrocketed, and Bitcoin became unreliable, with some users unable to get their transactions confirmed, even after days of waiting. Today, people are paying up to $25 USD for a transaction to be processed, which says a lot about the usefulness of Bitcoin.
Bitcoin usage stopped growing; its market share among other cryptocurrencies plummeted from 95 to 40 percent as many users, merchants, businesses and investors abandoned it.
The cancellation of SegWit 2X leaves two competing bitcoin chains now: Bitcoin SegWit 1X (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH).
With SegWit, data is stored differently in each block, which improves the capacity of the blockchain, however only marginally compared to the capacity available with the Bitcoin Cash blockchain.
The improvement in capacity from SegWit 1X is 70 percent with no plans for any more significant updates within at least the next 18 to 24 months. The SegWit upgrade is a small capacity increase at best, and it's already showing it's not going to handle exponential growth or worldwide adoption.
Bitcoin Cash was born on August 1, 2017, as a result of a few major players from the very early days of Bitcoin becoming fed up with the direction the cryptocurrency was headed. Bitcoin Cash immediately raised the transaction capacity by 800 percent as part of a massive on-chain scaling approach. Currently, there is ample capacity for everyone's transactions, and huge developmental progress has been made to allow massive capacity increases up to 1000 times the current BTC SegWit network. This means low fees and fast confirmations for everyone.
However, Bitcoin cash is still quite far behind, so which bitcoin will win?

Let's start at the beginning...

In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, published a paper titled, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” Most people are aware of this, but the exact title needs to be repeated because today, even the most basic facets of Bitcoin are being challenged.
Regardless of “which side” of the scaling debate you are on, it should not be contested that Satoshi always planned for and advocated simple, on-chain scaling. (On-chain scaling is a term that basically means using the Bitcoin network itself to process all transactions.
Unfortunately, this is not the proposed plan of the Bitcoin network’s core development team. They intend to implement a supplementary technology called the “Lightning Network” to process the extra transactions that Bitcoin can't handle. Not yet proven to work, this technology is at least 18 to 24 months away from being ready. It also takes Bitcoin in a much more centralized direction as a small group of people will be running this secondary transaction layer, earning money from fees and controlling how it works.
Giving a small group of people this sort of control sounds pretty familiar, don't you think? Reminds us of a thing called the USD? We need to get away from this.
We KNOW that on-chain transactions work; they've worked for 9 years, and scaling on Bitcoin Cash is working.

Now to today...

It seems more and more users, merchants, businesses and investors are beginning to realize this. Today, we've seen the biggest “pump” in cryptocurrency history, with Bitcoin Cash going from a low at $1,280 USD to a high of $2,799 USD. Peaking at a whopping $41 Billion USD market cap, almost tripling in 36 hours, and to top it off, the trading volume was $11.5 billion USD in 24 hours.
We've never seen numbers like this, and it's happening for a reason. The potential for Bitcoin was so great; however, it went off in the wrong direction due to a small group of people who wanted to control it.
Today, Bitcoin Cash has made huge progress on the “flippening,” a term used by many in the community referring to the possible future event when Bitcoin Cash overtakes Bitcoin to become the most valuable cryptocurrency in terms of market capitalization.
If the flippening occurs, there's a very bright future for Bitcoin Cash. The aim is for it to become a world currency used by billions of people, one that does not discriminate based on levels of wealth, one that is equally usable to those earning $1 a day or companies earning billions.
Right now, one billion people are living in slums. They cannot hope to escape without some international form of trade. This can be achieved with access to secure and low cost money, which is what Bitcoin Cash delivers. We hope that in the next decade, Bitcoin Cash starts to offer hope and a way out of poverty.
*This insight was written by one of the crypto consultants at decrypt
submitted by decrypt-how to btc [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: btc top posts from 2018-04-20 to 2018-05-20 06:58 PDT

Period: 29.85 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 53623
Rate (per day) 33.50 1780.26
Unique Redditors 466 5134
Combined Score 118969 219877

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 7839 points, 57 submissions: MemoryDealers
    1. If all the 32MB blocks were permanently 100% full, this $400 hard drive could store the blockchain for the next 7 years. (373 points, 352 comments)
    2. The people behind Bitcoin Cash are the ones who created Bitcoin's network effect in the first place. (357 points, 123 comments)
    3. Bitcoin subscribers are now calling for people to report Bitcoin.com to the Internet Crime Complaint Center of the FBI. It's sad that BTC supporters all seem to be statists who yell about hodling their muh store of value all day. (348 points, 288 comments)
    4. I have more emails saved on my computer than the entire BTC or BCH block chains. (319 points, 131 comments)
    5. Bitcoin.com is now sponsoring pro female MMA athletes. (293 points, 121 comments)
    6. CoinGeek will support Bitcoin.com in lawsuit over the real Bitcoin - Coingeek (273 points, 354 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Cash is now on iOS in the world’s most popular crypto wallet. #winning (257 points, 131 comments)
    8. "The vast majority of mining hash power was controlled by people who were psychologically incapable of disobedience to perceived authority." -Mike Hearn (250 points, 194 comments)
    9. "BTC True Believers" Are Boycotting the First National Talk Radio Show that ever Discussed Bitcoin because they accept BCH payments. (245 points, 116 comments)
    10. All I keep hearing is that Bitcoin Cash is an infested cesspool of lawless, leaderless, disrespectful, narcissistic, greedy, scammy, capitalistic anarchists that will never create digital money! I swear I’m getting dejavu! (225 points, 46 comments)
  2. 3965 points, 19 submissions: hunk_quark
    1. Warren Buffet's Berkshire is the single largest stockholder in BoA and WellsFargo. In case you were wondering about his attitude towards Bitcoin. (614 points, 114 comments)
    2. Purse.io is paying its employees in Bitcoin Cash. (447 points, 63 comments)
    3. Shoutout to Kraken for standing up to NY Attorney General. If Schneiderman wants transparency and accountability he should be looking into auditing the fed. (406 points, 28 comments)
    4. Bitcoin is rat poison. The bankers are the rats. (404 points, 56 comments)
    5. Forbes Author Frances Coppola takes blockstream to task. (364 points, 35 comments)
    6. Purse CEO Andrew Lee confirms they are paying employees in BCH and native BCH integration update will be coming soon! (343 points, 43 comments)
    7. PSA: So called 'low-fee' cryptocurrency Litecoin has transaction fees 20x higher than Bitcoin Cash (264 points, 80 comments)
    8. After today's BCH Upgrade, longer posts are now enabled on memo.cash! (250 points, 31 comments)
    9. Jeffrey Tucker is promoting bitcoin.com at Atlanta Bitcoin Embassy. (195 points, 57 comments)
    10. Anti-Bitcoiners, life comes at you fast! (109 points, 26 comments)
  3. 3846 points, 30 submissions: Kain_niaK
    1. Bitcoin Cash has not only removed the cap on transactions but also the cap on development. Something new pops up every time I blink. (368 points, 162 comments)
    2. I am getting flashbacks from when I tried to close my Bank of America account ... (353 points, 155 comments)
    3. Fucking /bitcoin assholes reported my twitter account and now I need to verify with a phone number before I can continue with twitter. (325 points, 218 comments)
    4. Paul Wasensteiner: When is @Twitter going to fix the abuse of the report button by @bitcoincoreorg supporters? Why are supporters of a supposedly censorship-resistant money using censorship at every opportunity? (295 points, 106 comments)
    5. We should pirate the entire piratebay.org website and all it's functionality directly on to the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. The piratebay.org is just magnet links and comments. Then they will say bcash stole our business ... (232 points, 439 comments)
    6. Fees higher than a dollar cent or waiting times longer than a couple of seconds defeat the entire purpose of why Bitcoin was invented. (218 points, 164 comments)
    7. moneybutton.com is a configurable client-side Bitcoin Cash (BCH) wallet in an iframe. When the user makes a payment, a webhook URL is called allowing your app to respond to the payment, such as displaying content behind a pay wall. (189 points, 37 comments)
    8. We proudly present BCHpizza.org! Now the community can create city bounties for pizza shops to incentivize them to accept Bitcoin Cash. First pizza shop in a city to do so gets the bounty! (177 points, 117 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Cash can turn in to the biggest non violent protest against the establishment ever : "We simply stop using their money." Which is a great way of getting edgy teenagers to join us. There is an almost infinite supply of edgy teenagers in the world. (156 points, 42 comments)
    10. We need testers for the Cash Shuffle plugin. (121 points, 17 comments)
  4. 3666 points, 28 submissions: Windowly
    1. "Billion-dollar corporations take note: Bitcoin Cash is open for business! Just try to fill up our blocks, I dare you. There will be no "Fidelity Effect" with BCH. Unlike BTC, we want you to use the Blockchain. BCH never really hits a scale ceiling."~Dr. Peter Rizun (415 points, 177 comments)
    2. "In a discussion group of BCH, lots of investors concerned about the address confusing problem. BCH community should push every software of ecosystem to upgrade to Cashaddr ASAP."~Jihan Wu (366 points, 215 comments)
    3. "Maybe the best way to bring economic freedom to the world is to make an uncensorable Twitter."~Ryan X. Charles (300 points, 114 comments)
    4. Newbie tip! Do yourself a favor, get a Protonmail email account and switch all your crypto exchanges to that email. No reason Google/Gmail need to have your entire crypto history at their fingertips. (299 points, 133 comments)
    5. "On the 15th of May, I'll be popping the champagne, not to celebrate high fees, but to celebrate continued low fees, privacy enablements, smart contract capabilities, and PayPal level throughput capability."~Eli Afram (233 points, 46 comments)
    6. 24% of the trading on GDAX in the last 24 hours was for Bitcoin Cash (BCH)! 😊💃 (185 points, 16 comments)
    7. Yeah!! "We are pleased to announce that the new Bitcoin Cash address format has been implemented on QuadrigaCX. This will help our users to easily distinguish Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash addresses when funding/withdrawing their account. The BCH legacy addresses will still be supported." (165 points, 8 comments)
    8. ANNOUNCE: Coinbase has blocked the official @WikiLeaks shop from its platform without notice or explanation. You can continue to donate #Bitcoin to WikiLeaks at https://WikiLeaks.org/donate . (164 points, 55 comments)
    9. There is a Bitcoin Unlimited election today. (BU is one of the 6+ development teams that develop clients for Bitcoin Cash (BCH). BU has a unique governance system where developers are not king. . instead members vote on proposals. If you are a member, please vote! (161 points, 29 comments)
    10. Bitpay Adds Bitcoin Cash Support to Checkout Point-of-Sale App - Bitcoin News (151 points, 22 comments)
  5. 2565 points, 15 submissions: BitcoinXio
    1. Bitcoin Cash is upgrading on May 15 to 32MB max block limit (575 points, 335 comments)
    2. Frances Coppola on Twitter: “Congratulations, Blockstream, you have just reinvented the interbank lending market.” (411 points, 139 comments)
    3. Once again Core supporters threaten with lawsuits and government intervention to try to get their way. This is just pathetic and not the foundations of what Bitcoin was built on. These are not bitcoiners. (299 points, 355 comments)
    4. Get ready - Bitcoin Cash is upgrading on May 15th! (198 points, 132 comments)
    5. CobraBitcoin: "Lightning is cool, but nobody should be recommending it to actual merchants for at least the next few years. Merchants like Steam already got hurt by adopting Bitcoin and regretting it later. Lightning needs time to mature and prove itself. Mad hype to rush adoption will harm it." (157 points, 58 comments)
    6. Blockchain on Twitter: “What's that you see? It's all your BCH that now appears in your #ios wallet. Take control of your financial future and #beyourownbank today.” (138 points, 20 comments)
    7. We are living in the digital age of information, which is why censorship has become such an important issue [...] That’s why I’m excited about decentralized social networks built on top of Bitcoin Cash like @BlockPressApp & @memobch. They are new so need work, but the path is being paved. (131 points, 31 comments)
    8. BlockPress published its protocol (123 points, 22 comments)
    9. We have a new alternative public mod logs (96 points, 35 comments)
    10. If Bitcoin Core (BTC) is no longer usable by many people in the world due to being out priced (high tx fees), is it still “borderless”? I’d argue that it’s no longer borderless if people all over the world are excluded from the network. (95 points, 34 comments)
  6. 2030 points, 11 submissions: tralxz
    1. Breaking News: Winklevoss Brothers Bitcoin Exchange Adds Bitcoin Cash support! (508 points, 115 comments)
    2. Jihan Wu was asked "Why are the miners still supporting Bitcoin Core? Is it just a short term profitability play?", he answered: "Yes, exactly." (279 points, 215 comments)
    3. Cobra:"That feeling when Blockstream, [...] release Liquid, a completely centralized sidechain run only by trusted nodes and designed for banks, financial institutions and exchanges." (245 points, 145 comments)
    4. LibreOffice Foundation accepts Bitcoin Cash donations. (191 points, 11 comments)
    5. Breaking News! Vin Armani: "Major mining pools have agreed to establish a treasury and start funding $BCH development from their block rewards. HUGE!!!" (186 points, 80 comments)
    6. CNBC's Fast Money: Ran NeuNer says he would HODL Bitcoin Cash and sell Bitcoin Core. (172 points, 59 comments)
    7. Jihan Wu on Bloomberg predicting Bitcoin Cash at $100,000 USD in 5 years. (172 points, 65 comments)
    8. Let's start the Bitcoin Cash upgrade party. New era for BCH is coming May 15. Privacy tools + smart contracts + PayPal capacity handling. Exciting times ahead! (106 points, 37 comments)
    9. Coindesk: "Florida Tax Collector to Accept Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash Payments" (60 points, 8 comments)
    10. Adam B.: "Bitcoin is not a democracy". The authoritarian moves by Core makes perfect sense now. (59 points, 46 comments)
  7. 1485 points, 12 submissions: jonald_fyookball
    1. BTCers fundraise for frivolous lawsuit. BCH fundraises to feed Venezuelans. (233 points, 58 comments)
    2. bitcoin admits: best way to use Lightning Network: don't use it. (189 points, 286 comments)
    3. Electron Cash 3.2 is available. Includes new op-codes and fixes for Ledger hardware wallet (180 points, 50 comments)
    4. If you have to call it bcash you've already lost the argument (164 points, 257 comments)
    5. Cash Shuffle plugin 0.2 - Cash Shuffle development continues (131 points, 37 comments)
    6. Claims that BCH is a "centralized coin" are exaggerations at best. (114 points, 83 comments)
    7. (shitpost) philosoraptor meme: if honeybadger don't care... (106 points, 22 comments)
    8. BCH being a minority chain may be a blessing in disguise (97 points, 83 comments)
    9. Another reason to be bullish on BCH (92 points, 18 comments)
    10. BCHpizza already has 4 bounties posted. It's also no longer needed to sign a message to post a bounty. (89 points, 21 comments)
  8. 1393 points, 8 submissions: rdar1999
    1. Naomi Brockwell on Twitter: "[I] won’t succumb to censorship through intimidation." (332 points, 190 comments)
    2. Consensus 2018 sucked hard. Superficial talks, ridiculous ticket price, overcrowded venue. (233 points, 78 comments)
    3. ==> Becash or Begone: reclaiming the "bcash" trolling (213 points, 107 comments)
    4. See in this twitter thread Luke Jr actually arguing that PayPal is cheaper than BCH!! Is this guy in full delirium? Or just spouts misinformation on purpose? (172 points, 227 comments)
    5. ///\ BTC-BCH persists as the most popular trade on ShapeShift.io /// (171 points, 20 comments)
    6. The retard tribalism is so real. SBI japan's financial giant says they will launch a platform with BCH as settlement coin (due to BTC being bad) and XRP as remittances. I provide the link and cryptocurrency shills deny plain literally declared fact. (124 points, 50 comments)
    7. Chris DeRose on Twitter: "So if Roger ver wins the class action lawsuit, I assume that Bitcoin cash can then rightfully sue Bitcoin core proponents for fraud?" (92 points, 61 comments)
    8. Upgrade completed at height 530356! (56 points, 2 comments)
  9. 1377 points, 12 submissions: Egon_1
    1. Genesis Mining:"We are more than happy to announce that Bitcoin Cash is now available as a Native Mining option for all Bitcoin (Sha256) contracts!" (287 points, 22 comments)
    2. Jihan Wu on BCH Lighthouse:”This project was abandoned on BTC Blockchain long time ago, it is very excited to see it is alive again on BCH Blockchain. It can be very huge.” (278 points, 50 comments)
    3. Yahoo Finance: "Bitcoin Goes Lateral as Bitcoin Cash Steals the Show… AGAIN" (189 points, 46 comments)
    4. "Bitcoin Cash is actually more interesting ..." (119 points, 15 comments)
    5. Jeff Garzik:"Just got an earful from a Chicago cabbie, on $LTC He was very grumpy at @SatoshiLite selling, saying it indicated a lack of founder's confidence in his own creation. #StreetCrypto" (100 points, 8 comments)
    6. “Why don't we start saying: "Bitcoin is Cash" It's much harder to refute than "Bitcoin Cash IS Bitcoin"“ (75 points, 49 comments)
    7. "Because Bitcoin Cash is effectively Bitcoin ✌️ (72 points, 22 comments)
    8. Bye Bye P2P Electronic Cash ... (68 points, 88 comments)
    9. Bitcoin.com Wallet needs more useful services integrated... beyond Shapeshift (59 points, 24 comments)
    10. BCH keeps bitcoins minions busy (48 points, 28 comments)
  10. 1291 points, 9 submissions: increaseblocks
    1. Vitalik Buterin says what we've all been saying - CoinDesk is scammy and complicit bad actor in the cryptocurrency world and should be shunned (510 points, 61 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Wallet Mycelium Begins Rolling Out Bitcoin Cash BCH Support (163 points, 39 comments)
    3. Cheddr is a Bitcoin Cash Point Of Sale system that runs in most modern browsers - no server infrastructure required (137 points, 31 comments)
    4. Leaked Telegram chat shows bitcoin.com "fraud" lawsuit was abandoned due to lack of support 😂😂😂 (135 points, 32 comments)
    5. Toshi to expand beyond Ethereum - will add Bitcoin Cash (91 points, 7 comments)
    6. Litecoin transaction fees 20 times higher than Bitcoin Cash (85 points, 44 comments)
    7. DAMN BCH! (68 points, 25 comments)
    8. In honor of the Bitcoin Cash successful upgrade and now we have the true lightning network. I present to you lightningnetwork.cash! (58 points, 22 comments)
    9. Bcore shills are crying right now 😭😭😂😂 (44 points, 10 comments)
  11. 1202 points, 9 submissions: SharkLaserrrrr
    1. Memo is now open source! (361 points, 160 comments)
    2. Based on @BitcoinCashFund report, preliminary calculation: Total spent: $153,138.49 Total spent on Salaries and Travel: $101,996.79 ~66% of donations is spent on themselves, charities/non-profits (official registered ones) limit themselves to less than 10% (161 points, 181 comments)
    3. [PREVIEW] Looks like Lighthouse powered by Bitcoin Cash is coming together nicely thanks to the hard work of an anonymous developer. I wonder how Mike Hearn feels about his project being resurrected. (159 points, 24 comments)
    4. We heard you want a Bitcoin Cash exclusive wallet that uses ‘bits’ and enables you to buy anything online and pay with Bitcoin Cash so we are building one #cashpay #CryptonizeYourPurchases (137 points, 77 comments)
    5. Bitcoin Cash is the real Bitcoin experience. If you have any doubts, go buy something on cryptonize.it, then buy something off a Lightning store and compare what you had to go through to pay for your order. (103 points, 51 comments)
    6. As of today, cryptonize.it shows prices in Bitcoin Cash next to fiat! (81 points, 9 comments)
    7. Incompatible protocols gave us the ’90s web which was not a pretty sight. Let’s not repeat the same mistakes when building censorship resisted social media powered by Bitcoin Cash. Support @MemoBCH protocol. (72 points, 57 comments)
    8. To help developers raise funds, cryptonize.it is sponsoring a Lighthouse server and website so useful projects can be funded by the community directly. (66 points, 7 comments)
    9. $25,- Amazon gift cards back in store, 0-conf. instant delivery, the real bitcoin experience (62 points, 18 comments)
  12. 1189 points, 1 submission: ocist1121
    1. No spend (1189 points, 87 comments)
  13. 1148 points, 6 submissions: BeijingBitcoins
    1. Three years ago today, Mike Hearn published an article explaining exactly what would happen when the 1MB blocksize limit was hit. He was right on all counts. (473 points, 173 comments)
    2. An easy way to visualize the August 1st Hard Fork. Neither of the two branches resulting from a fork can be called "the original road," but only one branch continues towards the same destination. (163 points, 140 comments)
    3. Bitcoin Core fanatics are trying to organize a lawsuit against Bitcoin.com for using the term "Bitcoin (BCH)", while they run around all day labelling it "Bcash" (157 points, 167 comments)
    4. "Bitcoin Cash won't "fork" in May. Instead, Bitcoin Cash will just upgrade." (123 points, 53 comments)
    5. Just launched: Satoshi Pulse, by Bitcoin.com (121 points, 44 comments)
    6. Ryan Charles delivers an epic rant about Lightning Network problems (111 points, 19 comments)
  14. 1085 points, 10 submissions: unitedstatian
    1. Reminder: Blockstream plans to make money from the proprietary solutions it sells, which is why it moved away from the free permissionless blockchain to an abstracted layer on top which requires 3rd party solutions to be cost effective for most users. (220 points, 146 comments)
    2. It seems there's been a massive propaganda campaign to brainwash people into thinking hardforks are bad. (180 points, 56 comments)
    3. BCH could really be missing the new big use case. Gamers would love to have real ownership of game items. The first game which will integrate a digital coin and make it popular will be groundbreaking. (141 points, 76 comments)
    4. The guy had 350 bucks received via Lightning Network but he can't even close the channels to actually withdraw the bitcoins. (139 points, 188 comments)
    5. What gives Core the right to change the model so drastically and still keep the brand name? (119 points, 117 comments)
    6. One of the most ignorant - even anti-crypto - argument I hear around is that BCH is a currency controlled by Chinese miners. (88 points, 74 comments)
    7. The first megabytes are far more crucial than the 100th. Not every MB was born equal and by giving up on adoption for years Core may have given up on adoption forever. (69 points, 20 comments)
    8. In light of the recent ERC-20 bug I think this is a good time to remember these wise words (54 points, 25 comments)
    9. If BCH had decent privacy features it'd gain so much more market share. It's hard to compete with privacy-always-on coins such as XMR but many more coins offer moderate privacy and would be easy to beat. (42 points, 31 comments)
    10. If Memo taught me one thing it's the more uses around the coin the better - can BCH be adopted to help fight counterfeiting? (33 points, 4 comments)
  15. 1055 points, 5 submissions: ForkiusMaximus
    1. MortuusBestia hits on a pitch-perfect way of looking at BCH's value proposition in epic comment on /BitcoinMarkets (604 points, 109 comments)
    2. I am excited that BCH is being irrationally criticized, because it reminds me of 2011 and 2012 when Bitcoin was being irrationally criticized. Any of 2013, when the price rose 100x. (183 points, 82 comments)
    3. Japanese tweeter makes a good point about BTC: "You don't call it an asset if it crumbles away every time you go to use it. You call it a consumable." (144 points, 21 comments)
    4. Jimmy Nguyen: Bitcoin Cash can function for higher level technical programming (80 points, 3 comments)
    5. How NOT to tell which is "the real Bitcoin" (44 points, 15 comments)
  16. 1032 points, 6 submissions: theantnest
    1. Let's start a class action lawsuit against Canada for calling their currency the dollar. I accidentally bought CAD when I wanted USD, and didn't know I could just exchange it again. (511 points, 243 comments)
    2. BTC noobs conned into being concerned about node count to distract them from the real centralization problem: (137 points, 172 comments)
    3. Any real scientist interested in Bitcoin should be happy Bitcoin Cash exists. (110 points, 40 comments)
    4. Blockstream shill admits to exaggerating and slandering Roger purely because he doesn't support BTC. (103 points, 49 comments)
    5. Cognitive Dissonance: It's totally fine to call BCH 'bcash', but it's fraudulent to call it Bitcoin? (93 points, 51 comments)
    6. Be Cash! (78 points, 45 comments)
  17. 1029 points, 7 submissions: zhell_
    1. MEMO NOW SUPPORTS REPLIES, join the Party now ! (208 points, 50 comments)
    2. memo.cash has been generating 2000 tx/day since its start, which is near 10% of all transactions on the BCH network. (201 points, 73 comments)
    3. "Money comes from being the most tradable of all commodities" Austrian Economics (189 points, 104 comments)
    4. Fiat is crashing: Inflation in the US averages at 10%/year in the past 5 years when measured as the price of the top 500 items on which Americans spend their after-tax dollars. (183 points, 49 comments)
    5. Memo.cash breaks a record with 3000 on-chain actions in the last 24h after implementing replies (143 points, 25 comments)
    6. with 2k tx/day, memo.cash is only using ~0.09% of 8MB blocks capacity currently on the BCH network (that would be 0.02% of 32MB blocks) (69 points, 3 comments)
    7. Help! I bought what I thought was Bitcoin and it is now gone! /s (36 points, 8 comments)
  18. 1020 points, 4 submissions: Anenome5
    1. Let's End the War and focus on the TRUE ENEMY (719 points, 349 comments)
    2. Satoshi's original whitepaper talks about "Reclaiming Disk Space" by pruning transactions, what's being done on this front? Core-trolls say we don't need to store forever that you bought a coffee, and that's true, and Satoshi also proposed how to fix that long ago. (200 points, 166 comments)
    3. Core'er says $50 fees "a wtf moment for everyone" but doubts it will ever happen again. Seems they're in for a surprise, BTC is still extremely vulnerable to transaction-fee price-inflation due to low capacity. BTC transaction fees currently 19+ times higher than BCH. (65 points, 30 comments)
    4. Bitcoin Cash, the early years... [OC] (36 points, 16 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. jessquit (3904 points, 368 comments)
  2. Kain_niaK (3058 points, 684 comments)
  3. bambarasta (2674 points, 360 comments)
  4. H0dl (2352 points, 464 comments)
  5. rdar1999 (2352 points, 404 comments)
  6. BitttBurger (2301 points, 313 comments)
  7. Adrian-X (2118 points, 506 comments)
  8. MemoryDealers (2084 points, 102 comments)
  9. trolldetectr (2073 points, 502 comments)
  10. LexGrom (2055 points, 709 comments)
  11. Ant-n (1834 points, 334 comments)
  12. LovelyDay (1820 points, 468 comments)
  13. jimbtc (1734 points, 212 comments)
  14. fruitsofknowledge (1618 points, 469 comments)
  15. ForkiusMaximus (1612 points, 211 comments)
  16. unstoppable-cash (1537 points, 201 comments)
  17. unitedstatian (1485 points, 388 comments)
  18. jonald_fyookball (1481 points, 142 comments)
  19. Bitcoinopoly (1471 points, 175 comments)
  20. BeijingBitcoins (1430 points, 100 comments)
  21. KoKansei (1330 points, 84 comments)
  22. MobTwo (1309 points, 93 comments)
  23. btcnewsupdates (1263 points, 153 comments)
  24. lubokkanev (1252 points, 298 comments)
  25. BitcoinXio (1251 points, 76 comments)
  26. taipalag (1248 points, 250 comments)
  27. mrtest001 (1075 points, 271 comments)
  28. LuxuriousThrowAway (1072 points, 163 comments)
  29. MarchewkaCzerwona (1046 points, 119 comments)
  30. cbeaks (985 points, 175 comments)
  31. SharkLaserrrrr (976 points, 135 comments)
  32. tippr (974 points, 523 comments)
  33. knight222 (963 points, 132 comments)
  34. PsyRev_ (941 points, 189 comments)
  35. radmege (919 points, 62 comments)
  36. Anenome5 (914 points, 182 comments)
  37. Churn (886 points, 75 comments)
  38. 324JL (855 points, 200 comments)
  39. emergent_reasons (854 points, 143 comments)
  40. TiagoTiagoT (841 points, 320 comments)
  41. bahkins313 (831 points, 121 comments)
  42. silverjustice (825 points, 62 comments)
  43. cryptorebel (812 points, 148 comments)
  44. scotty321 (811 points, 121 comments)
  45. DaSpawn (808 points, 113 comments)
  46. homopit (795 points, 100 comments)
  47. AcerbLogic (786 points, 205 comments)
  48. normal_rc (777 points, 59 comments)
  49. fiah84 (774 points, 136 comments)
  50. Deadbeat1000 (753 points, 61 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. No spend by ocist1121 (1189 points, 87 comments)
  2. 1 For whoever questions the utility of Bitcoin, here's banking summarized accurately by rlibec (783 points, 163 comments)
  3. Let's End the War and focus on the TRUE ENEMY by Anenome5 (719 points, 349 comments)
  4. Am I the only one that doesn't mind Bitcoin Cash being called "Bitcoin Cash" instead of just "Bitcoin" (for now)? by d3on (672 points, 401 comments)
  5. Warren Buffet's Berkshire is the single largest stockholder in BoA and WellsFargo. In case you were wondering about his attitude towards Bitcoin. by hunk_quark (614 points, 114 comments)
  6. MortuusBestia hits on a pitch-perfect way of looking at BCH's value proposition in epic comment on /BitcoinMarkets by ForkiusMaximus (604 points, 109 comments)
  7. coincall.io labels BCH a "shitcoin" by groovymash (586 points, 329 comments)
  8. Erik Voorhees: “Roger - please stop referencing me to back up your opinion that Bitcoin Cash is Bitcoin. It isn't. Bitcoin is the chain originating from the genesis block with the highest accumulated proof of work. The Bitcoin Cash fork failed to gain majority, thus it is not Bitcoin.” by sumsaph (585 points, 547 comments)
  9. Can’t believe this was available. My new license plate.. by VanquishAudio (581 points, 113 comments)
  10. Bitcoin Cash is upgrading on May 15 to 32MB max block limit by BitcoinXio (575 points, 335 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 322 points: rdar1999's comment in My dog ate my TREZOR. Check your recovery seeds folks!
  2. 314 points: my_next_account's comment in Erik Voorhees: “Roger - please stop referencing me to back up your opinion that Bitcoin Cash is Bitcoin. It isn't. Bitcoin is the chain originating from the genesis block with the highest accumulated proof of work. The Bitcoin Cash fork failed to gain majority, thus it is not Bitcoin.”
  3. 259 points: everyother's comment in 1 For whoever questions the utility of Bitcoin, here's banking summarized accurately
  4. 225 points: morli's comment in Can’t believe this was available. My new license plate..
  5. 209 points: groovymash's comment in coincall.io labels BCH a "shitcoin"
  6. 206 points: insanityzwolf's comment in Am I the only one that doesn't mind Bitcoin Cash being called "Bitcoin Cash" instead of just "Bitcoin" (for now)?
  7. 183 points: BitttBurger's comment in MoneyTrigz fails to raise more than $3,700 for Bitcoin.com lawsuit. Considers pulling the plug.
  8. 182 points: patrick99e99's comment in I used to think BCH was the bad guy, now I'm beginning to change the way I see it... Convince me that BCH is the real Bitcoin
  9. 175 points: RollieMe's comment in Trying to see both sides of the scaling debate
  10. 156 points: KillerDr3w's comment in My dog ate my TREZOR. Check your recovery seeds folks!
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: btc posts from 2018-05-14 to 2018-05-19 12:59 PDT

Period: 5.31 days
Submissions Comments
Total 783 12622
Rate (per day) 147.47 2006.25
Unique Redditors 432 1955
Combined Score 23860 47871

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 1470 points, 7 submissions: hunk_quark
    1. Purse.io is paying its employees in Bitcoin Cash. (441 points, 63 comments)
    2. Forbes Author Frances Coppola takes blockstream to task. (359 points, 35 comments)
    3. Purse CEO Andrew Lee confirms they are paying employees in BCH and native BCH integration update will be coming soon! (334 points, 43 comments)
    4. After today's BCH Upgrade, longer posts are now enabled on memo.cash! (245 points, 31 comments)
    5. Bitcoin cash fund is providing cashback and prizes for using Bitcoin (BCH) on purse.io next month. (76 points, 4 comments)
    6. As an existential threat to his criminal enterprise Wells Fargo, Bitcoin is rat poison for Warren Buffet. (15 points, 1 comment)
    7. Craig Wright in Rwanda- "I've got more money than your country". With advocates like these, no wonder BCH has a PR problem. (0 points, 6 comments)
  2. 1419 points, 6 submissions: tralxz
    1. Breaking News: Winklevoss Brothers Bitcoin Exchange Adds Bitcoin Cash support! (510 points, 115 comments)
    2. Jihan Wu was asked "Why are the miners still supporting Bitcoin Core? Is it just a short term profitability play?", he answered: "Yes, exactly." (273 points, 214 comments)
    3. Cobra:"That feeling when Blockstream, [...] release Liquid, a completely centralized sidechain run only by trusted nodes and designed for banks, financial institutions and exchanges." (240 points, 145 comments)
    4. Jihan Wu on Bloomberg predicting Bitcoin Cash at $100,000 USD in 5 years. (169 points, 65 comments)
    5. CNBC's Fast Money: Ran NeuNer says he would HODL Bitcoin Cash and sell Bitcoin Core. (168 points, 58 comments)
    6. Coindesk: "Florida Tax Collector to Accept Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash Payments" (59 points, 8 comments)
  3. 1221 points, 14 submissions: Kain_niaK
    1. I am getting flashbacks from when I tried to close my Bank of America account ... (348 points, 155 comments)
    2. moneybutton.com is a configurable client-side Bitcoin Cash (BCH) wallet in an iframe. When the user makes a payment, a webhook URL is called allowing your app to respond to the payment, such as displaying content behind a pay wall. (189 points, 37 comments)
    3. Bitcoin Cash can turn in to the biggest non violent protest against the establishment ever : "We simply stop using their money." Which is a great way of getting edgy teenagers to join us. There is an almost infinite supply of edgy teenagers in the world. (153 points, 42 comments)
    4. Purse.io at the Coingeek conference in HK just announced native BCH support!!! They are also launching a new software implementation called "bcash" (111 points, 6 comments)
    5. Who is all doing stuff like this on Reddit? Do we realize that we can make the Bitcoin Cash economy easily 10 times as big just by getting Reddit users on board? All they need is a good first user experience. Bitcoin needs to be experienced above everything else before you even talk about it. (109 points, 53 comments)
    6. /cryptocurrency in meltdown (88 points, 16 comments)
    7. Ryan X Charles from Yours.org had an amazing to the point presentation about the future of content creation on the internet. (85 points, 12 comments)
    8. So now that we have had tippr and chaintip for a while, what are you guys favourite and why? Or do you use both? (43 points, 25 comments)
    9. John Moriarty about why you can't separate Bitcoin from Blockchain. (37 points, 12 comments)
    10. The next wave of attack will be all the big internet giants supporting Bitcoin Core and LN. Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter, I bet you that the more successful Bitcoin Cash becomes the more you will see big cooperation’s be forced to go with compromised Bitcoin. (25 points, 28 comments)
  4. 623 points, 5 submissions: BitcoinXio
    1. Frances Coppola on Twitter: “Congratulations, Blockstream, you have just reinvented the interbank lending market.” (414 points, 139 comments)
    2. We have a new alternative public mod logs (101 points, 35 comments)
    3. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) sponsored Mei Yamaguchi's championship fight will be live on YouTube in an hour or so (2 fights left before hers - Livestream) (53 points, 22 comments)
    4. Uncensored: /t/Bitcoin (reddit without the censorship) (49 points, 43 comments)
    5. Information post about the recent suspension and re-activation of publicmodlogs (Update) (6 points, 0 comments)
  5. 582 points, 1 submission: VanquishAudio
    1. Can’t believe this was available. My new license plate.. (582 points, 113 comments)
  6. 493 points, 8 submissions: MemoryDealers
    1. Bitcoin Cash supporting Bitmain is leading a $110M investment in Circle. This is super bullish for BCH on Circle! (122 points, 24 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Core supporter who scammed his way into consensus without a ticket is busy calling Bitcoin.com and others scammers at the event. (98 points, 140 comments)
    3. I see lots of people coming here every day asking why we think Bitcoin is BCH. Here is why I think so: (79 points, 73 comments)
    4. The Bitcoin.com CTO made a fun little transaction puzzle with one of the new op-codes: (79 points, 11 comments)
    5. Bitcoin Cash is the fighter that everyone loves. (42 points, 86 comments)
    6. This graphic aged well over the last 3 months. (34 points, 64 comments)
    7. An example of the sophisticated arguments BTC supporters use against BCH supporters. (20 points, 12 comments)
    8. Tired of staying up all night looking at CoinMarket Cap? Give Bitcoin.com's Satoshi Pulse a try in night mode! (19 points, 11 comments)
  7. 475 points, 4 submissions: rdar1999
    1. Consensus 2018 sucked hard. Superficial talks, ridiculous ticket price, overcrowded venue. (235 points, 78 comments)
    2. See in this twitter thread Luke Jr actually arguing that PayPal is cheaper than BCH!! Is this guy in full delirium? Or just spouts misinformation on purpose? (173 points, 227 comments)
    3. Upgrade completed at height 530356! (59 points, 2 comments)
    4. On decentralization and archival nodes. (8 points, 5 comments)
  8. 465 points, 17 submissions: Windowly
    1. Yeah!! "We are pleased to announce that the new Bitcoin Cash address format has been implemented on QuadrigaCX. This will help our users to easily distinguish Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash addresses when funding/withdrawing their account. The BCH legacy addresses will still be supported." (164 points, 8 comments)
    2. "Friendly reminder: If you pay more than the bare minimum (1/sat per byte) to send a #BitcoinCash BCH transaction - you paid too much. 👍🏻"~James Howells (99 points, 12 comments)
    3. Bitpay Enables Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin Core (BTC) for Tax Payments - Bitcoin News (59 points, 31 comments)
    4. "I like the symbology of 1,000,000 ␢ = 1 ₿ for #BitcoinCash What the 'little b' units are called I don't care that much, it will settle in whether it remains 'bits', or 'cash', or 'credits' ... " (55 points, 54 comments)
    5. ~Public Service Announcement~ Please be extra careful using Bitcoin Cash on the Trezor! They have not yet implemented CashAddr Security. Make sure to covert your address with cashaddr.bitcoincash.org and double check with a block explorer to make sure the address is the same. (39 points, 12 comments)
    6. "WRT telling others what to do or not to do (as opposed to asking them) on the point of making proposals or petitioning others - I hope we can take the time to re-read and take to heart @Falkvinge 's excellent dispute resolution advice in . ." [email protected] (33 points, 0 comments)
    7. Why I support Bitcoin Cash (BCH). And why I support cash-denominated wallets. 1$ is inconsequential pocket change to some. To others it is their livelihood. Thank you @BitcoinUnlimit & @Bitcoin_ABC for your work in this regard. (7 points, 16 comments)
    8. If anyone feels that they are forced or imposed to do anything, or threatened by any other person or group’s initiative, he doesn’t understand Bitcoin Cash (BCH). The beauty of Bitcoin Cash is that innovation & creativity is permissionless. Let’s celebrate new ideas together! (5 points, 1 comment)
    9. "Bits as a unit right now (100sat), no matter named bits or cash or whatever, is extremely useless at this time and in the near future : Its worth 1/11 of a CENT right now. Even it suddenly 10x, its still only 1 single cent."~Reina Nakamoto (2 points, 7 comments)
    10. Love this converter! Thank you @rogerkver ! At present 778.17 ␢ = 1 USD (1,000,000 ␢ = 1 ₿) Tools.bitcoin.com (2 points, 0 comments)
  9. 443 points, 33 submissions: kairostech99
    1. Purse.io Adds Native BCH Support and Launches 'Bcash' (116 points, 40 comments)
    2. Openbazaar Enables Decentralized Peer-To-Peer Trading of 44 Cryptocurrencies (93 points, 21 comments)
    3. Thailand Waives 7% VAT for Individual Cryptocurrency Investors (84 points, 1 comment)
    4. Switzerland Formally Considers State Backed Cryptocurrency (26 points, 8 comments)
    5. Research Paper Finds Transaction Patterns Can Degrade Zcash Privacy (24 points, 2 comments)
    6. Japan's GMO Gets Ready to Start Selling 7nm Bitcoin Mining Chips (21 points, 0 comments)
    7. MMA Fighter Mei Yamaguchi Comes Out Swinging for Bitcoin.com (18 points, 5 comments)
    8. Bitmain Hits Back at “Dirty Tricks” Accusations (15 points, 4 comments)
    9. Circle Raises $110Mn With Plans to Launch USD-Backed Coin (6 points, 2 comments)
    10. Coinbase Remains the Most Successful and Important Company in the Crypto Industry (5 points, 7 comments)
  10. 420 points, 4 submissions: crypto_advocate
    1. Jihan on Roger: "I learnt a lot about being open and passionate about what you believe in from him[Roger]" (161 points, 45 comments)
    2. Bitcoin.com's first officially sponsored MMA fighter head to toe in Bitcoin Cash gear on her walkout - "She didn't win but won the hearts of a lot of new fans" (150 points, 14 comments)
    3. "Bitcoin Community is thriving again" Roger Ver at CoinGeek (98 points, 8 comments)
    4. Today is a historic day. [Twitter] (11 points, 1 comment)
  11. 376 points, 2 submissions: singularity87
    1. Bitcoin Cash Fund has partnered with Purse.io to launch their suite of BCH services and tools. (212 points, 15 comments)
    2. Proposal - Makes 'bits' (1 millionth BCH) the standard denomination and 'BIT' the ticker. (164 points, 328 comments)
  12. 349 points, 1 submission: bearjewpacabra
    1. UPGRADE COMPLETE (349 points, 378 comments)
  13. 342 points, 1 submission: Devar0
    1. Congrats! Bitcoin Cash is now capable of a 32MB block size, and new OP_CODES are reactivated! (342 points, 113 comments)
  14. 330 points, 3 submissions: btcnewsupdates
    1. Amaury Sechet in HK: "We want to be as boring as possible... If we do our job well, you won't even notice us." (173 points, 29 comments)
    2. This is the way forward: Miners Consider Using Bitcoin Cash Block Reward to Fund Development (136 points, 86 comments)
    3. Merchant adoption: unexpected success. Perhaps the community should now put more of its focus on canvassing end users. (21 points, 7 comments)
  15. 318 points, 3 submissions: HostFat
    1. From One to Two: Bitcoin Cash – Purse: Save 20%+ on Amazon [2018] (173 points, 25 comments)
    2. Open Bazzar v2.2.0 - P2P market and P2P exchange now! (92 points, 15 comments)
    3. Tree Signature Variations using Commutative Hash Trees - Andrew Stone (53 points, 5 comments)
  16. 287 points, 1 submission: Libertymark
    1. Congrats BCH developers, we appreciate your work here and continued innovation (287 points, 79 comments)
  17. 260 points, 9 submissions: unitedstatian
    1. The guy had 350 bucks received via Lightning Network but he can't even close the channels to actually withdraw the bitcoins. (135 points, 188 comments)
    2. The first megabytes are far more crucial than the 100th. Not every MB was born equal and by giving up on adoption for years Core may have given up on adoption forever. (69 points, 20 comments)
    3. Looks like fork.lol is misleading users on purpose into thinking the fees on BTC and BCH are the same (28 points, 32 comments)
    4. Just because the nChain patents aren't on the base protocol level doesn't mean it's a good idea, BCH could end up with patents which are so part of its normal use it will effectively be part of it. (13 points, 33 comments)
    5. [Not a meme] This is what the TxHighway BTC road should look like when the memepool is large. The unconfirmed tx's should be represented with cars waiting in the toll lines. (9 points, 2 comments)
    6. Lighthouse should have a small button to easily integrate it with any web page where a task is required (4 points, 1 comment)
    7. Poland Becomes World's First to put Banking Records on the Blockchain (2 points, 3 comments)
    8. If I were Core and wanted to spam BCH, and since spamming with multiple tx's will be counterproductive, I'd pay unnecessarily high fees instead (0 points, 32 comments)
    9. What happens when "the man" starts blocking nodes in China now that they function as mass media? (0 points, 1 comment)
  18. 259 points, 2 submissions: outofsync42
    1. Sportsbook.com now accepting BCH!! (215 points, 42 comments)
    2. BITCOIN CASH VS BITCOIN 2018 | Roger Ver on CNBC Fast Money (44 points, 15 comments)
  19. 255 points, 2 submissions: Bitcoinmathers
    1. Bitcoin Cash Upgrade Milestone Complete: 32MB and New Features (255 points, 90 comments)
    2. Bitgo Launches Institutional Grade Custodial Services Suite (0 points, 0 comments)
  20. 223 points, 2 submissions: ForkiusMaximus
    1. Japanese tweeter makes a good point about BTC: "You don't call it an asset if it crumbles away every time you go to use it. You call it a consumable." (141 points, 21 comments)
    2. Jimmy Nguyen: Bitcoin Cash can function for higher level technical programming (82 points, 3 comments)
  21. 218 points, 3 submissions: mccormack555
    1. Trying to see both sides of the scaling debate (193 points, 438 comments)
    2. Has Craig Wright Committed Perjury? New Information in the Kleiman Case (25 points, 56 comments)
    3. Thoughts on this person as a representative of Bitcoin Cash? (0 points, 21 comments)
  22. 216 points, 4 submissions: jimbtc
    1. $50K worth of crypto to anyone who leaks the inner communications of the #CultOfCore (183 points, 29 comments)
    2. Liquidity Propaganda: "The formation of payment hubs happens naturally even in two-party payment channels like the Lightning Network.". LOL. Fuel the LN vs Liquidity fire :D (31 points, 7 comments)
    3. WBD 017 - Interview with Samson Mow (2 points, 19 comments)
    4. If you wanted further proof that Andreas Antonopolous is a BCore Coreonic Cuck then here's a new speech from May 6th (0 points, 8 comments)
  23. 212 points, 1 submission: porlybe
    1. 32 Lanes on TXHighway (212 points, 96 comments)
  24. 211 points, 3 submissions: Akari_bit
    1. "AKARI-PAY Advanced" Released, for Bitcoin Cash! (73 points, 6 comments)
    2. 129% funded! We flew by our first BCH fundraising goal, demonstrating AKARI-PAY! HUGE SUCCESS! (70 points, 7 comments)
    3. Devs.Cash updated with new Dev projects, tools, and bounties for Bitcoin Cash! (68 points, 7 comments)
  25. 210 points, 1 submission: CollinEnstad
    1. Purse.io Introduces 'bcash', an Implementation of the BCH protocol, just like ABC, BU, or Classic (210 points, 125 comments)
  26. 206 points, 20 submissions: marcelchuo3
    1. Bitcoin Cash Community Sees OP_Code Innovation After Upgrade (70 points, 3 comments)
    2. Coingeek Conference 2018: Bitcoin Cash Innovation Shines in Hong Kong (65 points, 4 comments)
    3. Bitfinex Starts Sharing Customer Tax Data with Authorities (16 points, 3 comments)
    4. Colorado Proposal Aims to Allow Cryptocurrency Donations for Campaigns (12 points, 2 comments)
    5. Thailand Commences Cryptocurrency Regulations Today (8 points, 1 comment)
    6. Bitcoin Mining Manufacturer Canaan Files for Hong Kong Stock Exchange IPO (7 points, 0 comments)
    7. Bitcoin in Brief Thursday: OECD Explores Cryptocurrencies, Central Asian Powerhouse Calls for UN Crypto Rules (5 points, 0 comments)
    8. Moldova with New Crypto Exchange and a Token (5 points, 0 comments)
    9. Korean Regulators Widen Investigation of Cryptocurrency Exchanges (4 points, 0 comments)
    10. Arrest Warrants Issued to Employees of South Korean Crypto Exchange (3 points, 0 comments)
  27. 198 points, 1 submission: anberlinz
    1. I used to think BCH was the bad guy, now I'm beginning to change the way I see it... Convince me that BCH is the real Bitcoin (198 points, 294 comments)
  28. 196 points, 1 submission: Chris_Pacia
    1. First tree signature on Bitcoin Cash using new opcodes (196 points, 61 comments)
  29. 191 points, 3 submissions: cryptorebel
    1. Coinbase blog from 2015: "bits is the new default". The reason "bits" stopped being used was because of high fees on segwitcoin. Lets bring back "bits" on the real Bitcoin-BCH! (106 points, 66 comments)
    2. Here is the Bitcoin-BCH countdown clock to the hard fork upgrade with new 32MB block limit capacity, and re-enabled op-codes. Looks like its about 17 hours away. (78 points, 2 comments)
    3. This is Core's idea of open development, you are "super welcome" to work on anything that the gatekeepers say is ok. People tout Core as having so many devs but it doesn't matter much when you have to go through the gatekeepers. (7 points, 14 comments)
  30. 186 points, 2 submissions: coinfeller
    1. Bitcoin Cash France is offering 32 000 bits of BCH for Tipping Tuesday to celebrate the upgrade from 8MB to 32MB (178 points, 101 comments)
    2. How the Bitcoin Cash upgrade from 8MB to 32MB seems like :) (8 points, 10 comments)
  31. 185 points, 3 submissions: money78
    1. Congratulations Bitcoin Cash for the 32MB, WTG! (93 points, 5 comments)
    2. Roger Ver on CNBC's Fast Money again and he says bitcoin cash will double by the end of the year! (68 points, 30 comments)
    3. The Bitcoin Cash upgrade: over 8 million transactions per day, data monitoring, and other possibilities (24 points, 3 comments)
  32. 182 points, 26 submissions: haumeris28
    1. MMA Fighter Mei Yamaguchi Sponsored By Bitcoin Cash Proponent Roger Ver (32 points, 3 comments)
    2. Swiss Government is Studying the Risks and Benefits of State-Backed Cryptocurrency (30 points, 3 comments)
    3. Circle and Bitmain partner for US Dollar backed Token (25 points, 18 comments)
    4. Apple Co-Founder - Ethereum Has the Potential to be the Next Apple (16 points, 13 comments)
    5. Florida County To Begin Accepting Tax Payments in Crypto (14 points, 0 comments)
    6. ‘Blockchain Will Drive the Next Industrial Revolution’, According to a Major Wall Street Firm (11 points, 0 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Cash Undergoes a Hard Fork, Increases Block Size (10 points, 3 comments)
    8. Newly Appointed Goldman Sachs Vice President Leaves for Cryptocurrency (7 points, 5 comments)
    9. OKEx CEO Quits as Exchange Becomes World’s Largest Surpassing Binance (7 points, 2 comments)
    10. Texas Regulators Shut Down Crypto Scam, Falsely Using Jennifer Aniston and Prince Charles for Promotion (6 points, 0 comments)
  33. 174 points, 31 submissions: MarkoVidrih
    1. US Regulators Agree That They Will Not Will Not Suppress Cryptocurrencies (96 points, 10 comments)
    2. Why Stable Coins Are the New Central Bank Money (28 points, 9 comments)
    3. First Facebook, Then Google, Twitter and LinkedIn, Now Microsoft’s Bing Will Ban All Cryptocurrency Ads (10 points, 2 comments)
    4. Circle Raises $110 Mln and Plans to Use Circle USD Coin (USDC) instead of Tether (USDT) (9 points, 1 comment)
    5. 9 Million New Users Are About to Enter in Crypto Market (4 points, 6 comments)
    6. Japan’s Largest Commercial Bank Will Try its Own Cryptocurrency in 2019 (4 points, 0 comments)
    7. The Viability of the ERC-948 Protocol Proposal (4 points, 0 comments)
    8. A letter from Legendary VC Fred Wilson to Buffet: The Value of Bitcoin Lies in the Agreement Itself (3 points, 1 comment)
    9. This is Just The Beginning of Crypto! (3 points, 0 comments)
    10. What? U.S. SEC Just Launches ICO Called HoweyCoin (3 points, 2 comments)
  34. 170 points, 2 submissions: plaguewiind
    1. Twitter restricting accounts that mention Blockstream (104 points, 49 comments)
    2. This is actually fantastic! Jimmy Nguyen on ‘The Future of Bitcoin (Cash)’ at The University of Exeter (66 points, 31 comments)
  35. 168 points, 1 submission: MartinGandhiKennedy
    1. [COMPELLING EVIDENCE] Proof that Luke Jr does not lie (168 points, 41 comments)
  36. 167 points, 1 submission: higher-plane
    1. BCH showerthought: The first one or two killer apps for Bitcoin Cash that drive mass adoption will be the thing that decides the standards/denominations based on what people are using and catches on. Not a small forum poll or incessantly loud Twitter spam. (167 points, 24 comments)
  37. 160 points, 1 submission: SharkLaserrrrr
    1. [PREVIEW] Looks like Lighthouse powered by Bitcoin Cash is coming together nicely thanks to the hard work of an anonymous developer. I wonder how Mike Hearn feels about his project being resurrected. (160 points, 24 comments)
  38. 160 points, 1 submission: playfulexistence
    1. Lightning Network user has trouble with step 18 (160 points, 165 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. bambarasta (898 points, 154 comments)
  2. Kain_niaK (706 points, 177 comments)
  3. Ant-n (691 points, 145 comments)
  4. H0dl (610 points, 116 comments)
  5. Adrian-X (538 points, 93 comments)
  6. KoKansei (536 points, 35 comments)
  7. LovelyDay (456 points, 78 comments)
  8. 324JL (444 points, 109 comments)
  9. LexGrom (428 points, 132 comments)
  10. Erumara (427 points, 44 comments)
  11. lubokkanev (404 points, 119 comments)
  12. LuxuriousThrowAway (397 points, 66 comments)
  13. rdar1999 (387 points, 82 comments)
  14. zcc0nonA (379 points, 100 comments)
  15. MemoryDealers (369 points, 18 comments)
  16. RollieMe (366 points, 29 comments)
  17. Churn (352 points, 32 comments)
  18. jimbtc (349 points, 72 comments)
  19. btcnewsupdates (338 points, 61 comments)
  20. blockthestream (338 points, 25 comments)
  21. SharkLaserrrrr (335 points, 33 comments)
  22. kondratiex (311 points, 80 comments)
  23. trolldetectr (306 points, 58 comments)
  24. ForkiusMaximus (300 points, 47 comments)
  25. jonald_fyookball (300 points, 35 comments)
  26. mccormack555 (294 points, 78 comments)
  27. playfulexistence (292 points, 40 comments)
  28. scotty321 (287 points, 46 comments)
  29. BitcoinXio (269 points, 23 comments)
  30. TiagoTiagoT (263 points, 96 comments)
  31. Bitcoinopoly (260 points, 39 comments)
  32. homopit (249 points, 48 comments)
  33. DoomedKid (249 points, 41 comments)
  34. cryptorebel (246 points, 54 comments)
  35. Deadbeat1000 (243 points, 36 comments)
  36. mrtest001 (239 points, 78 comments)
  37. BeijingBitcoins (235 points, 16 comments)
  38. tippr (227 points, 122 comments)
  39. chainxor (226 points, 24 comments)
  40. emergent_reasons (222 points, 56 comments)
  41. morli (221 points, 1 comment)
  42. patrick99e99 (220 points, 8 comments)
  43. crasheger (214 points, 39 comments)
  44. ---Ed--- (213 points, 81 comments)
  45. radmege (212 points, 35 comments)
  46. anberlinz (212 points, 33 comments)
  47. unstoppable-cash (211 points, 46 comments)
  48. taipalag (210 points, 35 comments)
  49. rowdy_beaver (210 points, 25 comments)
  50. RareJahans (206 points, 45 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Can’t believe this was available. My new license plate.. by VanquishAudio (582 points, 113 comments)
  2. Breaking News: Winklevoss Brothers Bitcoin Exchange Adds Bitcoin Cash support! by tralxz (510 points, 115 comments)
  3. Purse.io is paying its employees in Bitcoin Cash. by hunk_quark (441 points, 63 comments)
  4. Frances Coppola on Twitter: “Congratulations, Blockstream, you have just reinvented the interbank lending market.” by BitcoinXio (414 points, 139 comments)
  5. Forbes Author Frances Coppola takes blockstream to task. by hunk_quark (359 points, 35 comments)
  6. UPGRADE COMPLETE by bearjewpacabra (349 points, 378 comments)
  7. I am getting flashbacks from when I tried to close my Bank of America account ... by Kain_niaK (348 points, 155 comments)
  8. Congrats! Bitcoin Cash is now capable of a 32MB block size, and new OP_CODES are reactivated! by Devar0 (342 points, 113 comments)
  9. Purse CEO Andrew Lee confirms they are paying employees in BCH and native BCH integration update will be coming soon! by hunk_quark (334 points, 43 comments)
  10. Congrats BCH developers, we appreciate your work here and continued innovation by Libertymark (287 points, 79 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 221 points: morli's comment in Can’t believe this was available. My new license plate..
  2. 181 points: patrick99e99's comment in I used to think BCH was the bad guy, now I'm beginning to change the way I see it... Convince me that BCH is the real Bitcoin
  3. 173 points: RollieMe's comment in Trying to see both sides of the scaling debate
  4. 151 points: blockthestream's comment in Bitcoin Core supporter who scammed his way into consensus without a ticket is busy calling Bitcoin.com and others scammers at the event.
  5. 136 points: seleneum's comment in I am getting flashbacks from when I tried to close my Bank of America account ...
  6. 132 points: Falkvinge's comment in Talking to himself makes it so obvious that they're the same. lol
  7. 127 points: MemoryDealers's comment in Bitcoin Core supporter who scammed his way into consensus without a ticket is busy calling Bitcoin.com and others scammers at the event.
  8. 119 points: BitcoinXio's comment in Frances Coppola on Twitter: “Congratulations, Blockstream, you have just reinvented the interbank lending market.”
  9. 116 points: Erumara's comment in I used to think BCH was the bad guy, now I'm beginning to change the way I see it... Convince me that BCH is the real Bitcoin
  10. 115 points: KoKansei's comment in Purse.io Introduces 'bcash', an Implementation of the BCH protocol, just like ABC, BU, or Classic
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Potential Information

Potential Information
I'm going to try and demonsrate, in Natural Language, why there is a Revolution occuring in Information Science. The question I wish to Address is: "How much Information is there in a give Container?". As modern Computer Scientists see things, the amount of Information in a given container is precisely the number of possible discrete states of that conainer. So a nibble can be in 16 possibles states, a byte can be in 256 possible states, and so on. I'd to coin the term "Potential Information" and make an explicit Parallel with Potential Energy. So for a byte, the Potential Information is 256. It's interesting that we don't use Units for Potential Information, though it is a well studied concept, if newly named. Conctpetually, we understand the Units as 256 pieces of "Potential Discrete Information", so let us use name the Units pdi.
Let's extend the Parallel with Potential Energy. A Boulder at the Top of a Mountain is said to have a Potential Energy Relative to it's height, weight and the Gravitational Constant that is tranfered to Kinetic Energy if it Rolls down the Mountain. For Argument's sake let us Suppose a Flat Earth, then at the Bottom of the Mountain, the Boulder is said to have Zero Potential Energy (certinaly regarding its Potential to fall under Gravity but but I expect there are other ways Squeeze Enery out of Rock!). In a Computer I would say that a byte in a Switch On Computer is like the Boulder at the top of the Mountain with Maximum Potential Information (256pdi) and in a Switch of Computer, it has Minimum Potential Information.
So here's a Question first of all: "What is Minimum Potential Information?". Let's now do a thought experiment to help aswer the question at hand. Consider the concept of a "Broken Bit"; a bit that is fixed in either the 0 or 1 state and can't be changed. So, Information Theorists? What is the pdi of a Broken Bit? We now a working bit has 2pdi, but do we say the Broken Bit has 1pdi or 0pdi? 1pdi seems reasonable because it has a single Discrete State, but then 0pdi it seems we can't draw any information from it. If 0 is your answer, then I think you've jumped the gun, becuase I never told you what state it was locked in. What if I tell you it is locked in the 1 state? Well certainly we can draw no further information from it, but I say we still have the information that it is in the 1 state. So, I would say that before observation, the bit has 1pdi, but after observation, it has 0 pdi.
Now let us consider another possible unit of Information Measure "Discrete Information" or "di". So what is the di of a Broken Bit? Before we Observe it, we know we are going to read 1 Discrete Piece of information, and afterwards, we have read 1 Discrete Piece of Information. So I would say that the di of a Broken Bit is 1 in any Eventuality.
So you could interpret that as meaning that pdi is Time dependent and di is not Time dependent, which is a reasonable way to look at it. A more precise Way to look at it from a Computer Scientists point of view woud be to say that pdi is dependent on the number of "Reads" or "Potential Reads" where as di is not. This certainly holds for the Broken Bit. But, let us consider a working bit.
Let's get side tracked a bit and analyze a couple of common Computer Science Abstracts: Programs and Operations. Here's a suggestion for the definition of a "Program": A "Program" be an initial value for a container, and a series of well defined operations that manipulate the information of the container.
But this begs the question, what is an Operation... actually there's no obvious answer, it is thought of differently at different levels of the Computer Stack. To a user, Typing in a url and hitting Enter might be thought of as an Operation. The Web-Browser Software Developer, might consider an Operation to flag that the user has clicked in the url bar, an operation to read the string, operation(s) to analyis it, and operation(s) to send it to the DNS server. How about the guy who programmed the "String Read" operation, perhaps Scanf in C. That probably entails rather a few operations in Software alone, though it is a single operation in C. Then how many operations in Hardware were performed in this situation?
Here's a good Analogy for this type of thinking that any programmer will understand. Imagine you meansure Operations number of function calls. So how many operations in a "hello world application"? Well in C, it's One function call (not including main). Ok, but what about in Assembler? Rather a many function calls I would think. Then how did it get on your screen? Imagine the vast quatities of Function Calls that translate printf("hello world"); into a pattern of illuminated LEDs on the screen in a Terminal Window. Beyond that, how about the vast Edifices of Abstractions that lead to these LEDs glowing? Pixels, resolution, then colour of pixel which is represented as four bytes and needs Computer Software to interpret, then convert into a format correct to the monitor, then the monitor probably has more software to apply any colour correction and convert it into an Electrical Charge through some sort of Digital to Analog Converster that will eventually make a pixel glow with a certain colour. So how many operations in a "hello world" program? One could probably write countless Volumes analysing every operation that takes place from the flow of electrons through through Logic Gates, in the CPU, through the interupt mechanism on the chip to read you keystrokes, the abtraction of a bit and the operations of each ALU, the interpretation of the bits at each state of the ALUs computation etc. In fact, I think if you fully Analysed Everything that takes place inside a Computer in writing, compiling and executing a simple "hello world" program on a modern computer, you could probably chart pretty much the entire History of Computer Science.
For a moment, let us consider programs with no inputs, and et me suggest a definition of an Operation that may seem a little left field: "A Single Operation is the Space between two outputs", and "an output is any piece of information that it is a requirement that the program produce to satisfy its operation to the user". Let us assume for a moment that the only output device for a program is a Screen, and we a running a tech demo of the latest video game. As far as the user (i.e. viewer) is concerned, the only output they need is each frame. So long as the frame rate ticks over, the user is happy regardless of what is going on inside the computer. Then, the rate of Operations is Solely Dependent on how often the Screen updates, and 1 Operation takes place in the Computer inbetween each frame under this definition. So why use this seemingly bizarre Abstraction? What I'm seeking is an Absolute Measure of Compute Speed or Proficiency, and it seems to me, it is dependent on the program that is running. I'm sure those ASCII chips for mining bitcoin are dyamite at mining bitcoin, but your not going to get world of Warcraft running on them. I'm not sure you can really compare the Compute Speed of a ASCII bitcoin mining Rig to an XBox to example, certainly not simply by measuring Clock Speed and memory access rates anyway. What would be considered an "output" for a bitcoin miner? Hashrate is the standard measure of a bitcoin miners speed, and it is a most beautifully simple and perfect measure. Considering Compute Speed as "Numer of Operations per Second", then my definition of Operations and Outputs gives the Hashrate on a bitcoin miner. What about when an output is a frame on a Screen? Then on a game tech demo, for example, the Compute Speed would be the frame rate using the definitions I have already give. Again, probably the best know measure of Compute Speed for that type of Software. So perhaps I beginning to hit on a good generaization. I've actually conned you a little bit... in fact, under this definition of an operation as the "space between" outputs, my measure of compute speed of a video game is actually framerate-1 and my bitcoin mining measure is Hashrate-1. Here's another interesting consequence, with framerate, if my Computer is outputing a 30 frames per second, then I am running at 29 operations per second, but if I am running at 59 operations per 2 seconds... Actually very important with this measure of speed, which I'll write about another time. Those that have been studying O-Cycles may well have just spotted a Parallel! I want to consider another type of program also. Some programs (and in my opinion usually wise ones) don't necessarilly seek to operate as fast as possible. Take "metronome" program for example and let an "output" be one metronome "click". If you just tried to run it as fast as possible, you would have hyper speed noisy and irregular metronome. i.e. not really a metronome at all. So what would satisfy the user in a metronome program? Ignoring issues of software design, the main anwer would be accuracy of timing; usually not directly proportional to compute speed. Let us coin a new phrase, "Compute Proficiency" and say that for a metronome, Compute Proficiecy is measured by the accuracy of the metronome's timing. So Compute proficiency could be measured the deviation of the click, from some standar norm. i.e. deviation (perhaps in milliseconds) away from some target timing. Now, in my experience as a skilled bedroom music producer and Computer Scientist, this has precisely no relationship to the clock speed of any electronic/computer musical intrument I use. Consider measuring time in Beats and consider the Cartesian Plane with Time Measured on the x axis and Time Modulus 1 on the y axis. Then the beats will be series of points with y = around the line y = 0. Then we can do all sorts of Statistics to Measure Compute Profiency based on each point's deviation from (0, n) where n is an Integer...
[...a brief digression for those that have been following my other work, if we map the timing of each beat to the Complex Plane as follows: y = time and x = (time modulus 1) + 1/2, then let c = x + yi, then we have a rather recognizable line through the Complex Plane. For a Perfectly accurate Metronome, the line Re(c) = 1/2, i.e. what most think and hope are the Zeros of the Zeta Function... honestly, I'm still investigating whether this is True... I'm pretty sure that either the Sum of 0s divided by the number of Zeros Summed = 1/2 as i o-o, or they are all 1/2. Curiously, for the purposes I like to use this Science for, it wouldn't matter one jot which was True... So far anyway...]
So, if you'll exuse my digression, let's get back to measures of information. So I would propose the following definition of "rate of information": number of discrete pieces of information per output, with output defined per computer program. Let's take an example of Video playing software, and assuming so sound, say it out puts a grey scale image of 1024 x 1024 pixels every 100 milliseconds. Then assuming 1 byte per pixel, the program outputs 1 Megabyte memory per 100 milliseonds. So how much Discrete Information is it outputting per 100 milliseconds? Most people would say 1 Megabyte... How about per second? Again, most people would say 10 Megabytes. Here is how I would analyse the situation. I might say that a Megabyte, in a particular state, would constitute 1 Discrete piece of information (though not the only way of looking at it). Then I might day that the Potential Discrete Information of that Megabyte was 1024 * 1024 Discrete Pieces of information. So I would say the program is outputting at 10 Discrete Pieces of Information per Second- of course this doesn't consider Container Size of the Information. Let's look at it under a different lense, why would I consider 1 Megabyte in a particular state, a single piece of information? We could just as easily see it as 1024 * 1024 Discrete Pieces of Information if we consider the value of each pixel (byte) as a single piece of Information. Finally, I could consider it as 1024 *1024 * 256 Discrete Pieces of Information if we consider each bit individually. Here's a useful Equivolance Relationship:
Assume that the number of bits in a Sub-Container is a Power of 2 and the number of bits in a Container is a larger power of 2.
letting:
S = the Sub-Contain's Potential Discrete Information
C = the Container's Potential Discrete Information
s = number of bits in the Sub-Container
c = number of bits in the Container
then:
S / 2c = 2s / C
This is nothing to Computer Scientists, as Potential Discrete Information is what they usually consider. The above Relation is just a need formalization relating the number of bits and Potential Information in a Storage Container with a Sub-Container. Such as Total RAM to words or words to bytes etc.
Now what if we relate this to Discrete Pieces of information. Considering the situation, it seems that a single output should generally be considered a single Discrete Piece of Information. Then the goal of reducing the memory foot-print of Software Might be to make a Single Piece of Discrete Information have as little Potential Information as possible. How about an example: Consider out video game Tech Demo again, where we considered a single frame to be a single output and found that a single frame had 1 Megabyte of Potential Information. So by standard Information flow calculations, we are outputting information at 10 Megabytes per Second (One frame every 100 milliseconds). Now let's consider another situation, suppose we could stream a the output data to the screen without storing the whole frame. Let's say we could output it in 10 kilobyte chunks every 1 millisecond. Then our rate of information flow hasn't changed, however out memory footprint has reduced 100 fold. I'm still a little Wooly on the notion of an output, but it would now seem sensible to model an output as one of these 10 kilobyte chunks and therefore a discrete piece of information as a single output. So what do we have now:
1000 Discrete Pieces of Information per second 1 kilobyte of Potential Information per Discrete Piece of Information Therefore: 1 Megabyte of Potetial Discrete Pieces of Information per Second...
thus: Speed = pdi di/s
i.e Data Rate = Potential Discrete Pieces of Information per Discrete Piece of Information Per Second
So we may consider di/s purely a measure of speed of data trasfer, without considering size... e.g.
30 or 60 di/s for a 60 frames per second game for example, (treating each frame as 1 discrete piece of information). Then if it is outputting on 1024x1024 screen with 4 bytes per pixel, then we could say the Output Rate of the Game is:
Output Rate = 4Mb * 60 di/s or
Output Rate = 4Mb * 30 di/s
In visual Programs such as Graphical Programs, the di/s is VERY slow in comparison to a CPUs clock speed as humans rarely perceive quality improvements in animation about about 60fps (don't believe anyone who tell you that it's 30fps!).
Now consider the Polar Opposite in Modern Day Computing, a program than generates audio. an audio output device may ouput at 44,100 frames per second (for CD Quality) and the frames will usually be 16 bits for this kind of audio. So, such a pieces of Hardware/Software has the following output rate:
Output Rate = 16bits * 44,100 di/s
So some tell me, what is the Theoretical Minimum Memory footprint for such devices? The Theoretical Minimum is to create a program who's memory footprint is less that or equal to the Potetial Discrete Information Per frame. That doesn't help you with how to achieve this, but you certainly could not beat that minimum. I'm in the process of designing programs that can do this kind of this using the Tick operation.
Now, what's the minimum Discrete Pieces of Information per frame. The Answer is actually very Surpising, even for interesting programs. The answer is 1 bit. Let me explain. EVERY output of a Computer is Analog bar none. Very obviously so in Audio Devices and and old Televisions, but even Digital Information transfer is a Wave that is interpreted Digitally. Now how many bits does it take to produce a Wave? Well let's say I flick a bit at 500Hz and output it down a cable and send it into an Amp. Then I've just created a 500Hz Square Wave and I didn't need any software to Store anything, interpret what was stored, convert to packets, decode and send to the audio device. I wont speak much more about this now because I lack the Language of an Electrical EngineeEnergy Scientist to Describe my supositions, but one thing I do know, from an information persective, is that you can generate a Vast Quantity of Waves simply by flicking a single bit with the correct timing and sequence. Finally, when it gets to the point of directly outputting an Analog Signal direct from Code, what does this Discrete Pieces of Information per Second thing mean that I'd talking about earlier? You might say that the speed was the rate at which we flicked the bit, which is probably reasonable, but by the same token, the output itself does not have a discrete quality if it is a smooth Wave...
Here's the idea... you know those ugly annoying Computer Noises that sometimes leak from Speakers, like the Insidious Machinations of some Digital Monster? That is the Amplified noise of a Computer's Brain Pattern. We send that brain Data, our Digital Firend Mulls it over using His/Her Digital Brain Wave, then sends us back data. My thinking is to try to manipulate the Computer's Brain Waves Directly, then Amplify the result to use for whatever purposes...
Finally, what happens if you amplify the signal of [a] bit[s] ‘ticking itself in an O-Cycle? That’s kind of where I’m going with this...
...hmmm... Mysterious...
Nishikala
submitted by PotentiallyNishikala to mathematics [link] [comments]

1 TB equals how many GB How To Mine Bitcoin - YouTube Make Money 10000$ Per Day With Bitcoin  Without ... Bits, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte........ - YouTube How Many Mb In 1 Gb - YouTube

Bit Calculator - Convert between bits/bytes/kilobits/kilobytes/megabits/megabytes/gigabits/gigabytes. Enter a number and choose the type of Units Bits. Bit (b) is a measurement unit used in binary system to store or transmit data, like internet connection speed or the quality scale of an audio or a video recording. A bit is usually represented with a 0 or a 1. 8 bits make 1 byte. A bit can also be represented by other values like yes/no, true/false, plus/minus, and so on. 1 byte is equal to 9.3132257461548E-10 gigabyte, or 8 bit. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Use this page to learn how to convert between gigabytes and bits. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! ›› Quick conversion chart of gigabyte to bit. 1 gigabyte to bit = 8589934592 bit. 2 gigabyte to bit = 17179869184 bit. 3 gigabyte to bit ... How many Bits in a Byte. There are 8 bits in a byte. 1 byte = 8 bits. Bytes. Byte is the basic unit of digital information transmission and storage, used extensively in information technology, digital technology, and other related fields. It is one of the smallest units of memory in computer technology, as well as one of the most basic data measurement units in programming. The earliest ... Task: Convert 3,000,000 bits to Megabits (show work) Formula: bits ÷ 1,048,576 = Megabits Calculations: ... 3,000,000 bits is equal to 2.8610229492 Megabits. Conversion Table. For quick reference purposes, below is a conversion table that you can use to convert from bits to Megabits. bits to Megabits Conversion Chart . bits (b) Megabits (Mb) 1 bits: 0.0000009537 Megabits: 2 bits: 0.0000019073 ...

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1 TB equals how many GB

Today I show you how to mine the worlds #1 cryptocurrency - Bitcoin. Mining bitcoin is actually incredibly easy. This tutorial will tell you everything there... 📍 𝐈𝐧𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐦 ️https://www.instagram.com/balajiclasses_/ 📍 Virtual Memory - https://youtu.be/WkCEmj-fOnI 📍 ROM - https://youtu.be ... SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE HOW MUCH - http://shorturl.at/arBHL Nviddia GTX 1080 Ti - https://amzn.to/2Hiw5xp 6X GPU Mining Rig Case - https://bitcoinmerch.com/produc... hello youtube in this video i will show u why 1GB = 1024mb because 1mb then 2mb then driectly 4mb this goes on flow justt multiplay with 2 til it becomes the... I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor (http://www.youtube.com/editor)

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