Crypto Calculator ASIC – Crypto-CoinZ

Is mining worth it for individuals?

I have done my fair bit of research on bitcoin and how mining works and difficulty.
Most people on different crypto reddit and blogs are indicating that mining is almost over for individuals and is only for corporations.
I have an electricity rate of 0.0075$/kWh. And an investment of $100k. From what I have researched it could still be beneficial. While i could still just buy bitcoin, mining seems safer and could turn into a passive income.
With the recent increase in difficulty that could prove that it's getting alot harder for day to day miners to keep at it. Any thoughts?
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ACIS-mining and its 3 best algorithms

ACIS-mining and its 3 best algorithms
Hello. 👋🏻 Today we will tell you about ACIS-mining and its 3 best algorithms.
📌 With the advent of ASICs for mining, it became possible to mine Bitcoin in much larger quantities than using video cards. ASIC is an integrated circuit specialized to solve a specific problem, in our case, only for bitcoin mining. These schemes are many times more profitable than video cards, because with more power (hash calculation speed) they consume much less energy. This served as a good reason to create a cryptocurrency mining business.
📌 In bitcoin and other blockchain systems, the complexity of mining depends on how quickly the miners find the block. Compared with the GPU and CPU, specialized #ASIC miners solve #PoW puzzles better and are therefore able to quickly find new blocks.
📌 Since PoW is still the preferred mining consensus mechanism, we propose to take a multiple algorithm approach. Instead of trying to use algorithms which are ASIC resistant, we propose to use algorithms which have had ASIC miners for quite some time. These are: #SHA256, #Scrypt, and #X11.
🔹 The SHA-256 algorithm has a number of advantages over other information protection technologies. Over the years of use in the cryptocurrency industry, he has shown his resistance to various hacking attempts.
🔹 Scrypt is a cryptocurrency mining algorithm that was previously interesting to many single miners in view of its resistance to the so-called “hardware attack”. The speed of creating blocks in a Scrypt-based blockchain is about 30 seconds. The hashrate, like Ethash, is measured in Megahash per second. Scrypt, first of all, became popular due to its use in Litecoin #cryptocurrency.
🔹 X11 is an encryption algorithm in which eleven are used instead of one function. This means that this technology can provide a high degree of security, because in order to harm the system, an attacker will have to crack all 11 functions, which is very unlikely, because the changes made will be visible after breaking the first function, and developers will have a lot of time to protect the system before the hacker reaches the eleventh function.
Since these miners are already in wide use, the distribution of mining should be fair and even. Furthermore, the use of three different algorithms results in a far less chance of any single person gaining a majority hash rate share. Lastly, we use the Multishield difficulty adjustment algorithm to prevent difficulty spike issues resulting from burst mining.
Read more about PYRK mining solutions here: https://www.pyrk.org
Read our Whitepaper to know more about the project:
https://www.pyrk.org/Pyrk-Whitepaper.pdf
https://preview.redd.it/rxmlr7wt1k251.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=162f9ddaacb3cf3e137638464a208bdf25e50a21
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Filecoin | Development Status and Mining Progress

Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador
https://preview.redd.it/5bqakdqgl3g51.jpg?width=865&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b709794863977eb6554e3919b9e00ca750e3e704
A decentralized storage network that transforms cloud storage into an account market. Miners obtain the integrity of the original protocol by providing data storage and / or retrieval. On the contrary, customers pay miners to store or distribute data and retrieve it.
Filecoin announced, that there will be more delays before its main network is officially launched.
Filecoin developers postponed the release date of their main network to late July to late August 2020.
As mentioned in a recent announcement, the Filecoin team said that the initiative completed the first round of the internal protocol security audit. Platform developers claim that the results of the review showed that they need to make several changes to the protocol’s code base before performing the second stage of the software testing process.
Created by Protocol Labs, Filecoin was developed using File System (IPFS), which is a peer-to-peer data storage network. Filecoin will allow users to trade storage space in an open and decentralized market.
Filecoin developers implemented one of the largest cryptocurrency sales in 2017. They have privately obtained over $ 200 million from professional or accredited investors, including many institutional investors.
The main network was slated to launch last month, but in February 2020, the Philly Queen development team delayed the release of the main network between July 15 and July 17, 2020.
They claimed that the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China was the main cause of the delay. The developers now say that they need more time to solve the problems found during a recent codecase audit.
The Filecoin team noted the following:
“We have drafted a number of protocol changes to ensure that building our major network launch is safe and economically sound.” The project developers will add them to two different implementations of Filecoin (Lotus and go-filecoin) in the coming weeks.
Filecoin developers conducted a survey to allow platform community members to cast their votes on three different launch dates for Testnet Phase 2 and mainnet.
The team reported that the community gave their votes. Based on the vote results, the Filecoin team announced a “conservative” estimate that the second phase of the network test should begin by May 11, 2020. The main Filecoin network may be launched sometime between July 20 and August 21, 2020.
The updates to the project can be found on the Filecoin Road Map.
Filecoin developers stated:
“This option will make us get the most important protocol changes first, and then implement the rest as protocol updates during testnet.” Filecoin is back down from the final test stage.
Another filecoin decentralized storage network provider launched its catalytic test network, the final stage of the storage network test that supports the blockchain.
In a blog post on her website, Filecoin said she will postpone the last test round until August. The company also announced a calibration period from July 20 to August 3 to allow miners to test their mining settings and get an idea of how competition conditions affected their rewards.
Filecoin had announced earlier last month that the catalytic testnet test would precede its flagship launch. The delay in the final test also means that the company has returned the main launch window between August 31 and September 21.
Despite the lack of clear incentives for miners and multiple delays, Filecoin has succeeded in attracting huge interest, especially in China. Investors remained highly speculating on the network’s mining hardware and its premium price.
Mining in Filecoin
In most blockchain protocols, “miners” are network participants who do the work necessary to promote and maintain the blockchain. To provide these services, miners are compensated in the original cryptocurrency.
Mining in Filecoin works completely differently — instead of contributing to computational power, miners contribute storage capacity to use for dealing with customers looking to store data.
Filecoin will contain several types of miners:
Storage miners responsible for storing files and data on the network. Miners retrieval, responsible for providing quick tubes for file recovery. Miners repair to be carried out.
Storage miners are the heart of the network. They earn Filecoin by storing data for clients, and computerizing cipher directories to check storage over time. The probability of earning the reward reward and transaction fees is proportional to the amount of storage that the Miner contributes to the Filecoin network, not the hash power.
Retriever miners are the veins of the network. They earn Filecoin by winning bids and mining fees for a specific file, which is determined by the market value of the said file size. Miners bandwidth and recovery / initial transaction response time will determine its ability to close recovery deals on the network.
The maximum bandwidth of the recovery miners will determine the total amount of deals that it can enter into.
In the current implementation, the focus is mostly on storage miners, who sell storage capacity for FIL.

Hardware recommendations

The current system specifications recommended for running the miner are:
Compared to the hardware requirements for running a validity checker, these standards are much higher — although they definitely deserve it. Since these will not increase in the presumed future, the money spent on Filecoin mining hardware will provide users with many years of reliable service, and they pay themselves many times. Think of investing as a small business for cloud storage. To launch a model on the current data hosting model, it will cost millions of dollars in infrastructure and logistics to get started. With Filecoin, you can do the same for a few thousand dollars.
Proceed to mining
Deals are the primary function of the Filecoin network, and it represents an agreement between a client and miners for a “storage” contract.
Once the customer decides to have a miner to store based on the available capacity, duration and price required, he secures sufficient funds in a linked portfolio to cover the total cost of the deal. The deal is then published once the mine accepts the storage agreement. By default, all Filecoin miners are set to automatically accept any deal that meets their criteria, although this can be disabled for miners who prefer to organize their deals manually.
After the deal is published, the customer prepares the data for storage and then transfers it to the miner. Upon receiving all the data, the miner fills in the data in a sector, closes it, and begins to provide proofs to the chain. Once the first confirmation is obtained, the customer can make sure the data is stored correctly, and the deal has officially started.
Throughout the deal, the miner provides continuous proofs to the chain. Clients gradually pay with money they previously closed. If there is missing or late evidence, the miner is punished. More information about this can be found in the Runtime, Cut and Penalties section of this page.
At Filecoin, miners earn two different types of rewards for their efforts: storage fees and reward prevention.
Storage fees are the fees that customers pay regularly after reaching a deal, in exchange for storing data. This fee is automatically deposited into the withdrawal portfolio associated with miners while they continue to perform their duties over time, and is locked for a short period upon receipt.
Block rewards are large sums given to miners calculated on a new block. Unlike storage fees, these rewards do not come from a linked customer; Instead, the new FIL “prints” the network as an inflationary and incentive measure for miners to develop the chain. All active miners on the network have a chance to get a block bonus, their chance to be directly proportional to the amount of storage space that is currently being contributed to the network.
Duration of operation, cutting and penalties
“Slashing” is a feature found in most blockchain protocols, and is used to punish miners who fail to provide reliable uptime or act maliciously against the network.
In Filecoin, miners are susceptible to two different types of cut: storage error cut, unanimously reduce error.
Storage Error Reduction is a term used to include a wider range of penalties, including error fees, sector penalties, and termination fees. Miners must pay these penalties if they fail to provide reliability of the sector or decide to leave the network voluntarily.
An error fee is a penalty that a miner incurs for each non-working day. Sector punishment: A penalty incurred by a miner of a disrupted sector for which no error was reported before the WindowPoSt inspection.
The sector will pay an error fee after the penalty of the sector once the error is discovered.
Termination Fee: A penalty that a miner incurs when a sector is voluntary or involuntarily terminated and removed from the network.
Cutting consensus error is the penalty that a miner incurs for committing consensus errors. This punishment applies to miners who have acted maliciously against the network consensus function.
Filecoin miners
Eight of the top 10 Felticoin miners are Chinese investors or companies, according to the blockchain explorer, while more companies are selling cloud mining contracts and distributed file sharing system hardware. CoinDesk’s Wolfe Chao wrote: “China’s craze for Filecoin may have been largely related to the long-standing popularity of crypto mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin at discretion.”
With Filecoin approaching the launch of the mainnet blocknet — after several delays since the $ 200 million increase in 2017 — Chinese investors are once again speculating strongly about network mining devices and their premium prices.
Since Protocol Labs, the company behind Filecoin, released its “Test Incentives” program on June 9 that was scheduled to start in a week’s time, more than a dozen Chinese companies have started selling cloud mining contracts and hardware — despite important details such as economics Mining incentives on the main network are still endless.
Sales volumes to date for each of these companies can range from half a million to tens of millions of dollars, according to self-reported data on these platforms that CoinDesk has watched and interviews with several mining hardware manufacturers.
Filecoin’s goal is to build a distributed storage network with token rewards to spur storage hosting as a way to drive wider adoption. Protocol Labs launched a test network in December 2019. But the tokens mined in the testing environment so far are not representative of the true silicon coin that can be traded when the main network is turned on. Moreover, the mining incentive economics on testnet do not represent how final block rewards will be available on the main network.
However, data from Blockecoin’s blocknetin testnet explorers show that eight out of 10 miners with the most effective mining force on testnet are currently Chinese miners.
These eight miners have about 15 petabytes (PB) of effective storage mining power, accounting for more than 85% of the total test of 17.9 petable. For the context, 1 petabyte of hard disk storage = 1000 terabytes (terabytes) = 1 million gigabytes (GB).
Filecoin craze in China may be closely related to the long-standing popularity of crypt mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin by estimation. In addition, there has been a lot of hype in China about foreign exchange mining since 2018, as companies promote all types of devices when the network is still in development.
“Encryption mining has always been popular in China,” said Andy Tien, co-founder of 1475, one of several mining hardware manufacturers in Philquin supported by prominent Chinese video indicators such as Fenbushi and Hashkey Capital.
“Even though the Velikoyen mining process is more technologically sophisticated, the idea of mining using hard drives instead of specialized machines like Bitcoin ASIC may be a lot easier for retailers to understand,” he said.
Meanwhile, according to Feixiaohao, a Chinese service comparable to CoinMarketCap, nearly 50 Chinese crypto exchanges are often somewhat unknown with some of the more well-known exchanges including Gate.io and Biki — have listed trading pairs for Filecoin currency contracts for USDT.
In bitcoin mining, at the current difficulty level, one segment per second (TH / s) fragmentation rate is expected to generate around 0.000008 BTC within 24 hours. The higher the number of TH / s, the greater the number of bitcoins it should be able to produce proportionately. But in Filecoin, the efficient mining force of miners depends on the amount of data stamped on the hard drive, not the total size of the hard drive.
To close data in the hard drive, the Filecoin miner still needs processing power, i.e. CPU or GPU as well as RAM. More powerful processors with improved software can confine data to the hard drive more quickly, so miners can combine more efficient mining energy faster on a given day.
As of this stage, there appears to be no transparent way at the network level for retail investors to see how much of the purchased hard disk drive was purchased which actually represents an effective mining force.
The U.S.-based Labs Protocol was behind Filecoin’s initial coin offer for 2017, which raised an astonishing $ 200 million.
This was in addition to a $ 50 million increase in private investment supported by notable venture capital projects including Sequoia, Anderson Horowitz and Union Square Ventures. CoinDk’s parent company, CoinDk, has also invested in Protocol Labs.
After rounds of delay, Protocol Protocols said in September 2019 that a testnet launch would be available around December 2019 and the main network would be rolled out in the first quarter of 2020.
The test started as promised, but the main network has been delayed again and is now expected to launch in August 2020. What is Filecoin mining process?
Filecoin mainly consists of three parts: the storage market (the chain), the blockecin Filecoin, and the search market (under the chain). Storage and research market in series and series respectively for security and efficiency. For users, the storage frequency is relatively low, and the security requirements are relatively high, so the storage process is placed on the chain. The retrieval frequency is much higher than the storage frequency when there is a certain amount of data. Given the performance problem in processing data on the chain, the retrieval process under the chain is performed. In order to solve the security issue of payment in the retrieval process, Filecoin adopts the micro-payment strategy. In simple terms, the process is to split the document into several copies, and every time the user gets a portion of the data, the corresponding fee is paid. Types of mines corresponding to Filecoin’s two major markets are miners and warehousers, among whom miners are primarily responsible for storing data and block packages, while miners are primarily responsible for data query. After the stable operation of the major Filecoin network in the future, the mining operator will be introduced, who is the main responsible for data maintenance.
In the initial release of Filecoin, the request matching mechanism was not implemented in the storage market and retrieval market, but the takeover mechanism was adopted. The three main parts of Filecoin correspond to three processes, namely the stored procedure, retrieval process, packaging and reward process. The following figure shows the simplified process and the income of the miners:
The Filecoin mining process is much more complicated, and the important factor in determining the previous mining profit is efficient storage. Effective storage is a key feature that distinguishes Filecoin from other decentralized storage projects. In Filecoin’s EC consensus, effective storage is similar to interest in PoS, which determines the likelihood that a miner will get the right to fill, that is, the proportion of miners effectively stored in the entire network is proportional to final mining revenue.
It is also possible to obtain higher effective storage under the same hardware conditions by improving the mining algorithm. However, the current increase in the number of benefits that can be achieved by improving the algorithm is still unknown.
It seeks to promote mining using Filecoin Discover
Filecoin announced Filecoin Discover — a step to encourage miners to join the Filecoin network. According to the company, Filecoin Discover is “an ever-growing catalog of numerous petabytes of public data covering literature, science, art, and history.” Miners interested in sharing can choose which data sets they want to store, and receive that data on a drive at a cost. In exchange for storing this verified data, miners will earn additional Filecoin above the regular block rewards for storing data. Includes the current catalog of open source data sets; ENCODE, 1000 Genomes, Project Gutenberg, Berkley Self-driving data, more projects, and datasets are added every day.
Ian Darrow, Head of Operations at Filecoin, commented on the announcement:
“Over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day. This data includes 294 billion emails, 500 million tweets and 64 billion messages on social media. But it is also climatology reports, disease tracking maps, connected vehicle coordinates and much more. It is extremely important that we maintain data that will serve as the backbone for future research and discovery”.
Miners who choose to participate in Filecoin Discover may receive hard drives pre-loaded with verified data, as well as setup and maintenance instructions, depending on the company. The Filecoin team will also host the Slack (fil-Discover-support) channel where miners can learn more.
Filecoin got its fair share of obstacles along the way. Last month Filecoin announced a further delay before its main network was officially launched — after years of raising funds.
In late July QEBR (OTC: QEBR) announced that it had ceded ownership of two subsidiaries in order to focus all of the company’s resources on building blockchain-based mining operations.
The QEBR technology team previously announced that it has proven its system as a Filecoin node valid with CPU, GPU, bandwidth and storage compatibility that meets all IPFS guidelines. The QEBR test system is connected to the main Filecoin blockchain and the already mined filecoin coin has already been tested.
“The disclosure of Sheen Boom and Jihye will allow our team to focus only on the upcoming global launch of Filecoin. QEBR branch, Shenzhen DZD Digital Technology Ltd. (“ DZD “), has a strong background in blockchain development, extraction Data, data acquisition, data processing, data technology research. We strongly believe Filecoin has the potential to be a leading blockchain-based cryptocurrency and will make every effort to make QEBR an important player when Mainecoin mainnet will be launched soon”.
IPFS and Filecoin
Filecoin and IPFS are complementary protocols for storing and sharing data in a decentralized network. While users are not required to use Filecoin and IPFS together, the two combined are working to resolve major failures in the current web infrastructure.
IPFS
It is an open source protocol that allows users to store and transmit verifiable data with each other. IPFS users insist on data on the network by installing it on their own device, to a third-party cloud service (known as Pinning Services), or through community-oriented systems where a group of individual IPFS users share resources to ensure the content stays live.
The lack of an integrated catalytic mechanism is the challenge Filecoin hopes to solve by allowing users to catalyze long-term distributed storage at competitive prices through the storage contract market, while maintaining the efficiency and flexibility that the IPFS network provides.
Using IPFS
In IPFS, the data is hosted by the required data installation nodes. For data to persist while the user node is offline, users must either rely on their other peers to install their data voluntarily or use a central install service to store data.
Peer-to-peer reliance caching data may be a good thing as one or multiple organizations share common files on an internal network, or where strong social contracts can be used to ensure continued hosting and preservation of content in the long run. Most users in an IPFS network use an installation service.
Using Filecoin
The last option is to install your data in a decentralized storage market, such as Filecoin. In Filecoin’s structure, customers make regular small payments to store data when a certain availability, while miners earn those payments by constantly checking the integrity of this data, storing it, and ensuring its quick recovery. This allows users to motivate Filecoin miners to ensure that their content will be live when it is needed, a distinct advantage of relying only on other network users as required using IPFS alone.
Filecoin, powered by IPFS
It is important to know that Filecoin is built on top of IPFS. Filecoin aims to be a very integrated and seamless storage market that takes advantage of the basic functions provided by IPFS, they are connected to each other, but can be implemented completely independently of each other. Users do not need to interact with Filecoin in order to use IPFS.
Some advantages of sharing Filecoin with IPFS:
Of all the decentralized storage projects, Filecoin is undoubtedly the most interested, and IPFS has been running stably for two years, fully demonstrating the strength of its core protocol.
Filecoin’s ability to obtain market share from traditional central storage depends on end-user experience and storage price. Currently, most Filecoin nodes are posted in the IDC room. Actual deployment and operation costs are not reduced compared to traditional central cloud storage, and the storage process is more complicated.
PoRep and PoSt, which has a large number of proofs of unknown operation, are required to cause the actual storage cost to be so, in the early days of the release of Filecoin. The actual cost of storing data may be higher than the cost of central cloud storage, but the initial storage node may reduce the storage price in order to obtain block rewards, which may result in the actual storage price lower than traditional central cloud storage.
In the long term, Filecoin still needs to take full advantage of its P2P storage, convert storage devices from specialization to civil use, and improve its algorithms to reduce storage costs without affecting user experience. The storage problem is an important problem to be solved in the blockchain field, so a large number of storage projects were presented at the 19th Web3 Summit. IPFS is an important part of Web3 visibility. Its development will affect the development of Web3 to some extent. Likewise, Web3 development somewhat determines the future of IPFS. Filecoin is an IPFS-based storage class project initiated by IPFS. There is no doubt that he is highly expected.
Resources :
  1. https://www.coindesk.com/filecoin-pushes-back-final-testing-phase-announces-calibration-period-for-miners
  2. https://docs.filecoin.io/mine/#types-of-miners https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/inside-the-craze-for-filecoin-crypto-mining-in-china-2020-07-12؟amp
  3. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/qebr-streamlines-holdings-to-concentrate-on-filecoin-development-and-mining-301098731.html
  4. https://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2020/05/161200-filecoin-seeks-to-boost-mining-with-filecoin-discove
  5. https://zephyrnet.com/filecoin-seeks-to-boost-mining-with-filecoin-discove
  6. https://docs.filecoin.io/introduction/ipfs-and-filecoin/#filecoin-powered-by-ipfs
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Cryptocurrency Mining Today

Cryptocurrency Mining Today
Mining is one of the key concepts in the crypto world. Everyone who comes into contact with this sphere somehow wonders about the mining of coins. How profitable is mining in 2020, and what are the current trends?
by StealthEX
Crypto mining is a process during which a computer solves mathematical problems, resulting in the release of new blocks of information. This gives its owners a certain amount of coins, which is deposited in the total pot and registered in the public “ledger”, so-called blockchain. Machines in the network are also checking transactions with existing coins, adding this information to the blockchain as well.
As for the issue itself, the most well-known algorithm of mining is Proof-of-Work (PoW), used in the networks of Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum and many others.
During the mining process, the latest transactions are verified and compiled into blocks. It is usually a series of calculations with an iteration of parameters to find a hash with the specified properties. The node which first solves this problem receives a reward. This approach was specifically designed to encourage those who provide the computing power of their mining machines to maintain the network and mine new coins.
It is usually no need for a newcomer to know and understand all the complicated details of the mining process, just how much they can earn with certain equipment and electricity costs.
Everything is designed in such a way that the complexity of calculations is steadily increasing, which then requires a constant increase in the computing power of the network. In 2009-2010, for mining bitcoin, miners only had to download and run the software on their personal computers, but very soon the network became so complicated that even with best PCs with a powerful processor, mining became unprofitable. That’s why miners started to use more effective video cards (graphics processing units or GPUs) and join them in so-called “farms”.
In most systems, the number of coins is determined in advance. Also, many networks are gradually reducing rewards for miners. Such emission restrictions were built into the algorithm to prevent inflation.
Thus, the cost of mining for smaller participants no longer pays off, which makes them turn off their hardware or switch to another coin where they can still make their profit.
In particular, on the evening of May 11, 2020, a halving took place in the bitcoin network, the reward for mining was halved, from 12.5 to 6.25 BTC. In June, the revenue of bitcoin miners decreased by 23%, to the lowest since March 2019.
However, in mid-June, the difficulty of bitcoin mining showed a record growth over the past 2.5 years. Mining the first cryptocurrency has become 15% more difficult. Although, by the beginning of July, the complexity had stabilized. The growing difficulty of mining the first cryptocurrency indicates that new miners have joined its network. Previously, some of them turned off the equipment, as it became less profitable to mine the coin due to a decrease in its cost and halving.
Now the absolute majority of new coins are generated by industrial mining. This is done by large data centers equipped with specialized computers based on the ASIC architecture. ASICs are integrated circuits that were initially optimized for a specific task, namely the mining of cryptocurrencies. They are much more productive than CPUs and video cards, and at the same time consume much less electricity. ASIC computers are the main type of equipment for the industrial production of crypto.
So now, after the halving, BTC coin mining has become even less profitable. For beginners, mining the first cryptocurrency is unlikely to be suitable. It is more often earned by large companies that have all the necessary equipment, access to cheap rental conditions, electricity and maintenance.
Hence newbies are better off starting with mining altcoins. It is even more profitable to work in a pool, that is, together with other miners. This can help to place farms in one place and negotiate a favourable price for electricity, so you can get a small but stable income dux to the total capacity of the pool.
Therefore, it has become much more difficult for regular users who have only non-specialized equipment at their disposal to generate virtual money. However, GPU developers have significantly increased the performance of their devices in recent years, so mining on a video card is still common.
Another important event that changes the situation in the mining sphere will be the hardfork of the Ethereum network with the turn to the Proof-of-Stake algorithm. For now, Ethereum is the most popular altcoin for GPU mining, but Ethereum 2.0 will not require using such powerful equipment, so then it switches to PoS, GPU owners will have to look for alternative coins to mine.
At the moment the most popular altcoins for mining on GPUs are Ethereum (ETH), Ethereum Classic (ETC), Grin (GRIN), Zcoin (XZC), Dogecoin and Ravencoin (RVN). There are actually a lot of mining programs that automatically determine which coin is more profitable to mine at the moment.
In the coming years, the market is waiting for a race of technologies. Manufacturers are investing in finding ways to increase hashing speed and reduce power consumption. Mining pools will play an increasing role. The market will also be affected by applications for mining cryptocurrencies on smartphones that require low computing power, such as Dash or Litecoin.
And remember StealthEX supports more than 250 coins and constantly updating the list, so you can easily swap your crypto haul to more popular altcoins. Our service does not require registration and allows you to remain anonymous. Why don’t you check it out? Just go to StealthEX and follow these easy steps:
✔ Choose the pair and the amount for your exchange. For example ETH to BTC.
✔ Press the “Start exchange” button.
✔ Provide the recipient address to which the coins will be transferred.
✔ Move your cryptocurrency for the exchange.
✔ Receive your coins.
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [email protected].
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/07/28/mining-today/
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Features of using PoW in the PYRK system

Features of using PoW in the PYRK system
Hello, community! 👋🏻 In this post, we will tell you about Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake algorithms and why PYRK uses PoW.
⛏ Proof of work allows the blockchain to remain “clean”, allows the entire community to compete to verify the validity of transactions, and makes attacks on the system very costly. But is this cost of attack justified? Aste argues that it should be sufficient to make the double-spend attack too costly.
⛏ A double spend attack can occur in a situation where an attacker tries to send the same bitcoin to two different users. In such a case, the attacker would try to spend as many bitcoins as possible twice. This number is limited by the number of transactions that can fit in a block, which in value terms is currently about $ 2 million.
⛏ A transaction involving more than the total cost of transactions in the block will attract attention from the network. This puts a real limit on the size of a double spend of about $ 2 million. And although the duplication of transactions can be repeated several times sequentially or in parallel, we will neglect it in this calculation.
🏆 PYRK Proof-of-Work triple algorithm
🔹 PYRK takes a multiple algorithm approach. We propose to use algorithms which have had ASIC miners for quite some time. These are: SHA256, Scrypt, and X11.
🔹 Since these algorithms are already in wide use, the distribution of mining should be fair and even.
🔹 There’s a far less chance of any single person gaining a majority hash rate share when using three different algorithms simultaneously.
🔹 Also, we use the Multishield difficulty adjustment algorithm to prevent difficulty spike issues resulting from burst mining.
💡 The idea of multi-algorithm originated in Digibyte. Splitting the mining into three different algorithms effectively splits the amount of work performed by each algorithm to 33% of the total network hashrate. The triple algorithm approach helps to further protect the network from bad actors while also providing the preferred Proof-of-Work mechanism.
Read more about PYRK project: https://www.pyrk.org
https://preview.redd.it/3l5wegef9gc51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=7cb7391a1f3e01425de7eace49e674ac6f65c7ea
submitted by VS_community to pyrk [link] [comments]

bro, I live in area with 0.003 kilowatt per hour electro price, at the moment how much electro one BTC takes and time ?

as title says, I wanna mine ASAP and AF, I wanna mine the *** out of BTC mother.
but I need mathematical equations before investing
data I have is 15 000 kilowatts per hour, it's outdated. considering massive has increase, how much electro it takesn ow ?
submitted by Hekapoo126363 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Questions Regarding BTC Mining

I have been wondering about some of the details related to bitcoin mining bit couldn't find an answer, I would bet the answer can be found was I capable of looking up the mining algorithms but I'm not that savvy (not yet at least) so here it goes.
I understand that during mining, the miners take the hash calculated from a given block then appends a nonce to it and calculate SHA256 for the whole expression, if the hash value is larger than the limit set by mining difficulty, the miner must attempt again the SHA256 calculation again by appending a different nonce and repeat until a hash smaller than the limit is found.
What I wanted to ask is the following:
1) Is my understanding above correct? If not then please disregard the below questions since they would be garbage most likely (correcting the fault lines in my understanding would more than enough).
2) How are these nonces to be appended chosen? Are they chosen randomly at every attempt or changed sequentially by adding 1 for example?
3) Does the bitcoin blockchain enforces the use of a specific algorithm for generating nonces or is it left to the miners to concoct their own algorithms as they see fit? (If enforced by the bitcoin block chain, I'd appreciate an explanation why)
4) If the choice is left to miners to generate nonces as they see fit, what is the best approach to generating these nonces available?
5) In a mining pools where many ASICs are hashing together, is there any coordination at the pool or at least at individual ASIC miner level to ensure no two ASIC chips are calculating the hash for the same nonce while trying to find the block? If not, what are the difficulties preventing such an implementation?
Thanks in advance and if there are any useful resources addressing these questions please share them especially ones describing the mining algorithm generating nonces.
submitted by BitcoinAsks to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

TradeOptionGains bitcoin site?

Got this weird DM on reddit idk what this guy is up to have any of you ever heard of this https://tradeoptiongains.com Site?
u/mikerobin25

Mikerobin2501:52 AM
Hello there
IDEKMyUsername09:34 AM
Howdy
Mikerobin2509:47 AM
How's it going?
IDEKMyUsername12:13 PM
Not bad.
What's up
Mikerobin2512:36 PM
I'm doing quite alright, How about you?
IDEKMyUsername12:53 PM
Not bad
Mikerobin2501:39 PM
Well, I don't mean to intrude but are you familiar with the term "cryptocurrency", Bitcoin to be precise?
IDEKMyUsername03:10 PM
Yes
Aye
Mikerobin2503:25 PM
Well, I'm at the moment engaging in an outreach aimed at expanding the clientele of my platform and enlightening the populace on the monetary potential of bitcoin trading and mining. Would you be interested in this?
IDEKMyUsername03:26 PM
Uh yeah sure I can look into it.
What does it include?
Mikerobin2503:28 PM
Are you familiar with the term "Bitcoin trading"?
IDEKMyUsername03:29 PM
Yeah somewhat
Like selling and buying it?
Mikerobin2503:33 PM
Well, Bitcoin trading is the process of making profits by buying Bitcoin at a low cost and selling it when the price goes up, This method is referred to as Dollar Cost Averaging(DCA). The Bitcoin trade is volatile, and price move by a significant margin. This activity is done on trading platforms.
Are you following?
IDEKMyUsername04:07 PM
Yep gotcha so far
Sorry had to pickup a call
Mikerobin2506:51 PM
No problem mate. Every platform has an investment procedure and ROI method. Unlike other platforms that engage in day trading (profiting from the volatility of bitcoin which is inefficient), My platform is registered with S9 ant miners that mine the bitcoin you invest to increase exponentially and that’s how you earn profits.
Have you heard of the term "Bitcoin mining"?
IDEKMyUsername06:52 PM
Yes I have
Mikerobin2506:57 PM
Good. For clarification, Bitcoin mining primarily involves generating and earning off the confirmation of blocks of transaction on the network such as the Blockchain network.
This is made possible with the use of special and sophisticated devices called the Bit main devices, Such as the AntMiner S9 and ASIC hardware. These devices are extremely expensive to maintain and require a lot of electricity generation and technical expertise which makes it rarely an option for private individuals who are interested in going into Bitcoin mining. But my platform has been able to provide for this disability.
Are you following?
IDEKMyUsername06:57 PM
I feel ya
Yes
Mikerobin2507:01 PM
Moving on, My platform operates a full S9 Antminer farm. The Antminer s9 has a hash rate of 12.93TH/s which is -+ 7%, Which could generate a ROI of 0.5 BTC within an investment period depending on the investment capital. Note: ROI stands for return of investment while hash rates a measure of how many times the network can attempt to complete this puzzle every second. This means that hash rate is a good indicator of the Bitcoin network's health.
Do i still have your attention?
IDEKMyUsername07:02 PM
Yes
Mikerobin2507:05 PM
Finally, All investments are made and monitored by the client (you) on the platform's website as you earn profits daily and you can contact me a "Broker" on the platform whenever you need assistance or more information.
https://tradeoptiongains.com
IDEKMyUsername07:05 PM
Hm
U have a history of wise investments?
I mean don't really know you so not like your a "professional" of any means
Mikerobin2507:06 PM
Certainly
We've been running for a span of 4 years now with optimum services provided
IDEKMyUsername07:38 PM
oh wow
gimmie some more deets?
how much money would I expect if i put a quick g bar in?
IDEKMyUsername07:53 PM
hm?
Mikerobin2507:54 PM
An investment of $1000 amounts up to the standard ROI stated above which is 50% of 1 bitcoin.
Apologies for the late reply, Was attending to a client of mine.
IDEKMyUsername07:55 PM
so invest of about $1000 would give ruffly 5?
nah ur good fam
like how I go about that tho u know
cause isn't bitcoin like kind of high right now?
Mikerobin2507:57 PM
Yeah though it would have been more profitable if you had started earlier when it was cheaper but you should be expecting more returns due to the halving coming up.
https://www.bitcoinblockhalf.com/
IDEKMyUsername07:58 PM
how high you think its going to get?
Mikerobin2507:59 PM
Its a highly speculative asset but from my experience and following it's previous halving events, Probably 15-18k.
IDEKMyUsername08:01 PM
oh jeez thats like as big as the big boom right?
how you know its gonna do that?
and what if it doesn't lol?
do I just l;ose it all
Mikerobin2508:05 PM
Exactly. If it doesn't, It would remain at its breaking point of 9k or peak point of 10k but i highly doubt it doesn't pump(rise) based on past halving events. You can simply get started by creating your personal account on the platform by which you can start by purchasing bitcoin and you can do this by clicking on the "Register" icon to get started.
IDEKMyUsername08:05 PM
hmmm idk
Kinda need some more security u know what I mean?
Mikerobin2508:08 PM
I understand. Loses are only made when you sell off, You money remains intact whether it rises or falls as long as you don't sell but your ROI is fully attained on your account on the platform.
IDEKMyUsername08:09 PM
o
Mikerobin2508:10 PM
Indeed
Mikerobin2508:20 PM
Any more questions?
IDEKMyUsername08:20 PM
uhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
no
Mikerobin2508:22 PM
Okay then, I'm available here if you're interested and need my assistance
Enjoy the rest of your day.
IDEKMyUsername08:25 PM
o
ok
Yesterday
Mikerobin2501:48 PM
https://www.fxstreet.com/cryptocurrencies/news/breaking-bitcoin-price-takes-down-9-000-as-10-000-beckons-202004300334
https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/bitcoin-price-gold-oil-2020-best-performing-assets-a9492641.html
IDEKMyUsername01:51 PM
O
I bought it
Mikerobin2501:51 PM
Pardon?
IDEKMyUsername01:52 PM
I bought one
Mikerobin2501:52 PM
On what platform?
IDEKMyUsername01:54 PM
I'm idk the one u sent me
Um*
Mikerobin2501:55 PM
Really? When did you do this and why wasn't i informed?
Today
IDEKMyUsername10:19 AM
Oh like last last night
I thought it was expected
U sent me the link and everything
;(
Mikerobin2510:22 AM
You would have informed me so i can enlighten you more on the procedure. Are you aware that it's a mining platform and you earn profits as an investor?
IDEKMyUsername10:23 AM
Yah so what would profit be ya reckon?
For let's say $1000 over liek a year
Mikerobin2510:24 AM
What name did you use in registering the account?
IDEKMyUsername10:24 AM
Uh I'd have to look it up
But how much profit did u say it would be about?
Mikerobin2510:27 AM
0.5 BTC a month depending on your investment capital that is, I would need the name of your account to register it under my personal database so i can provide you with information and assistance when needed.
IDEKMyUsername10:28 AM
O damn that's some big bucks right there
.5 btc like what 4g?
4 times 11 that's $44,000 a month
Mikerobin2510:30 AM
How much did you invest and what is the name of your account?
Your profit is calculated in respect of your investment capital
IDEKMyUsername10:31 AM
Like 11grand
Mikerobin2510:31 AM
And the name?
IDEKMyUsername10:31 AM
Mmmm
How do I find it?
Is there a way on the site
Mikerobin2510:31 AM
What name did you use in creating the account?
Didn't you register?
IDEKMyUsername10:32 AM
Oh like my irl name
I thought u meant like a username
Mikerobin2510:32 AM
Username is what i mean
IDEKMyUsername10:33 AM
It's gonna be under Jeffery Henderson
Jeffery L. Henderson
Mikerobin2510:35 AM
Okay, Give me a second to record it and ascertain your expected profit.
IDEKMyUsername10:35 AM
Sick
Did u find my account?
Mikerobin2510:41 AM
I can't find your records on the platform, Maybe a technical difficulty. Could you please sign in and send me a screenshot of your funds deposited through discord please?
IDEKMyUsername10:41 AM
So tell me mike
Where's the cash?
Mikerobin2510:41 AM
Pardon?
IDEKMyUsername10:41 AM
You lost it, oh you misplaced it.
Now mike you know I don't like to be lied to right?
Mikerobin2510:43 AM
Since i can't find your account on the platform, I guess that's the ending of our conversation.
Good day.
IDEKMyUsername10:43 AM
So why
THE FUCK
ARE YOU LIEING TO ME
Mikerobin2510:44 AM
Prove that you have an account on the platform by sending a screenshot
IDEKMyUsername10:44 AM
I cannot
I did it on
Computer
Mikerobin2510:45 AM
The sign in through your phone, Do i seem like a fool to you?
I have a lot of clients to attend to and i don't have time for games
IDEKMyUsername10:45 AM
I ain't the I one that took another man's money and now can't find it
You don't have other clients
Let's not play games here
How do I get my money out of this depreciating asset?
You better help me get my money out of this or were going to have a major issue
Mike...
IDEKMyUsername11:16 AM
U serious rn bro?
Ur gonna scam me out of my 💰
?
A day will come when you think yourself safe and happy,.
But suddenly your joy will turn to ashes in your mouth.
and you'll know the debt is paid
IDEKMyUsername08:01 PM
Br
You still my 11 grand
Stole
What's your name
Tell me
Or I'll find you
submitted by IDEKMyUsername to Scams [link] [comments]

CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting

CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting
The token economy and the blockchain complement each other, while at the same time, the consensus mechanism forms the basis of the blockchain, whom constitutes the basic technical framework of the token economy.
The mainstream blockchain, like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and EOS have all compromised on certain aspects of the "impossible triangle" features.
https://preview.redd.it/8ocq98swpt551.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=37ab0235c07b450217e22531ad5291d5b4bcbbee
Bitcoin, as a decentralized digital currency, has sacrificed performance to meet the design requirements of decentralization and security, rendering it the target of highest attacking cost among all PoW public chains. The ASIC mining machines updates continually and new versions launch, both can continuously improve the computing power of the entire network.
Ethereum 2.0 will use a proof of stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. On the Ethereum network, money can be transfered and smart contracts can be operated, presenting a more complicated application scenario. However, due to its low performance, Ethereum is more prone to get congested.
EOS, as a blockchain application platform, is often suspected of being centralized. EOS uses a delegated proof of stake (DPoS) consensus mechanism. Having 21 super nodes responsible for bookkeeping and block generation, the EOS main network can handle more than 4,000 TPS now. However, due to its small number of nodes, it’s one of the three major public chains that are most easily questioned by the outside world on the "decentralization" feature.
An inefficient blockchain will only be a game in the laboratory, and an efficient blockchain without decentralization will only be taken advantage of by big players.
New generation consensus algorithm DPoW
Is there any consensus mechanism that can achieve a better balance between decentralization and efficiency, and can give miners incentives to invest in hardware resources? If we separate the two acts of "acquiring accounting rights" and "receiving block rewards", the above dilemma can be solved. By separating the above two, DPoW has finally achieved the effect of balancing efficiency and centralization.

https://preview.redd.it/www3h8swpt551.png?width=731&format=png&auto=webp&s=c0bf49a42751a9501828d0294bc9280f856c441e
Drawing on the design concept and operating experience of the preceding consensus mechanisms, DPoW is a new-generation consensus mechanism formed based on PoB and DPoS.
Before explaining DPoW, it’s necessary to introduce PoB.
PoB (Proof of Burn) is called the burning proof mechanism. (Source: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Proof_of_burn))

https://preview.redd.it/payq2duzpt551.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=4b8e9181d95d31a8d5b75a7acab27c851a4a3a4d
PoB is a way to vote who has a commitment to the leadership of the network by burning tokens possessed. The greater the number of tokens burned, the higher the probability of gaining network leadership.
PoB is a method of distributed consensus and an alternative method of proof-of-work mechanism. It can also be used to guide a cryptocurrency.

https://preview.redd.it/4lmhs1i1qt551.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=e8c50b1638d8ec8d8a2dac2e842b50a2979984fb
In the DPoW-based blockchain, the miner's mining reward is no longer a token, but a "wood" that can be burned-burning wood. Through the hash algorithm, miners use their own computing power to get the corresponding non-tradable wood after proving their workload eventually. When the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, it can be burnt in the burning site.
DPoW technical solutions
Voting with computing power is the biggest innovation of the present invention. It uses the proof of work of the PoW algorithm to replace the stakes as votes, yet retains the BFT-DPoS block generation mechanism.
Specific steps are as follow:
  1. POW question acquisition
Obtain the question of proof of work. The proof of work of the present invention is to perform a Hash operation on a PoW problem; the questions is:
target = hash(block_id + account) ^ difficulty 
  1. POW question answering
A mathematical hash operation of a random number (nonce) is performed on the question, and if the hash value obtained is less than a certain value, the question is answered;
Question answering process:
nonce = random ()ret = max() while(ret > target) { if(hash(nonce+account + block_id)< target) { wood = nonce; break; } nonce++; } 
  1. Voting
Voting is to cast the specific answers to the question to the candidate BP. By such, it’s submitted to the blockchain and counted to the blockchain's status database; within an election period, the maximum value of the answer that each voter can calculate is N, and each answer can only be voted to one candidate BP, and the number of votes that can be cast is N.
The information and process that voting requires:
  • Answer to the question
  • Miner account
  • Block id
  • Block
  • Voting objects (candidate BP)
  • Verify that the vote is valid
  • After verification, it will be credited to BP
4. Count the votes
At the end of an election period, votes are counted and sorted top-down according to the number of votes under the name of the candidate BP. The top X candidate BPs are selected and inserted into the BP list, and the block generating order of the selected BP is written to the blockchain status database.
If X is the number of BPs generated by the system, namely a multiple of 3, it will be set in the genesis block and cannot be changed.
  1. Block generation
The DPoW block generation mechanism is the same as BFT-DPoS. The elected BP negotiates a block generation ownership order based on its own network resource status. When each BP node has block generation rights, the block reward is a fixed reward for each effective irreversible block. At the same time, the blocks that have been generated use the BFT signature mechanism. After getting 2/3 BP's signature, the block will become an irreversible block.
DPoW’s advantage in balance
Compared with existing technical solutions, the DPoW consensus protocol has the following feature.
  1. When the stock of burning wood is large, the nodes in the system tend to burn burning wood to vote instead of logging through computing power, which is similar to the DPoS under this situation.
  2. When the stock of burning wood is few, the nodes in this system tend to log to obtain burning wood for voting, which is similar to PoW under this situation, presenting the feature of decentralization. In order to ensure the high-speed operation of the system and attract ticket sources, BP will maintain a stable investment in computer resources to keep the system highly efficient.
Choosing to vote by logging or burning wood depends on the nodes’ own optimal choice, resulting in constant choosing between the two consensus mechanisms of PoW and DPoS. This will make nodes tend to choose PoW when decentralization is needed, and to choose DPoS when efficiency is needed.
For a system, whether it is decentralized does not depend on whether each block needs to be decentralized. The key is whether the system can provide a channel to decentralization and fair competition when needed. As long as the channel is reasonable, the system will be considered decentralized.
By decoupling vote by logging and block generation, they can be done asynchronously to achieve the effects of decentralization and high efficiency.
Learning and updating the preceding practices in blockchain technology, DPoW manages to achieve both decentralization and efficiency, as “having the cake and eating it”.

📷Website
https://www.celesos.com/
📷 Telegram
https://t.me/celeschain
📷 Twitter
https://twitter.com/CelesChain
📷 Reddit
https://www.reddit.com/useCelesOS
📷 Medium
https://medium.com/@celesos
📷 Facebook
https://www.facebook.com/CelesOS1
📷 Youtube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1Xsd8wU957D-R8RQVZPfGA
submitted by CelesOS to u/CelesOS [link] [comments]

White Paper, Miner, Pizza … | "Old Objects" in the Cryptocurrency Museum

White Paper, Miner, Pizza … |
https://preview.redd.it/giu1ssilga151.jpg?width=900&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=41510785ccdc0d99544ec74229f62427d1c0ce3e
Museum has played the role of a time recorder. Talking about bitcoin, more than ten years has passed since the creation of it. Although it is uncomparable to the stock market with a hundred years of history, during the ten years, in the different stages of the development of bitcoin and blockchain have continuously poured in geeks, miners, speculators, newbies, leaving keywords such as sudden rich, myth, scam, belief, revolution, etc.
There are also many “old objects” with stories in the “Museum” of the cryptocurrency realm. On Museum Day, let ’s review the stories brought by these “old objects”.
The First Digital Currency White Paper — Bitcoin White Paper
On Oct. 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto released the Bitcoin white paper — A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System in the cryptographic mail group where he belongs, and Bitcoin was born since then.
A white paper is a document that explains the purpose and technology used in cryptocurrency. Usually a cryptocurrency uses the white paper to help people understand what it provides, and it is also an important information channel for investors to understand a project. Therefore, the level of the white paper affects people’s confidence towards the coin.
In a word, in the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry, the value of a white paper is equivalent to that of a standard financing speech. The white paper plays a vital role in this emerging market.
The First Public Bitcoin-Physical Transaction — Pizza
Since Satoshi Nakamoto mined the Bitcoin genesis block on January 3, 2009, Bitcoin has only been spread among the small crowd and has not realized its value.
Not until May 22, 2010, Bitcoin enthusiast “Laszlo Hanyecz” bought a pizza coupon worth $25 with 10,000 bitcoins. This is the first public bitcoin-physical transaction. Bitcoin has its price with 0.3 cents per bitcoin.


This day has also become the famous “Bitcoin Pizza Day” in Bitcoin history. Bitcoin as the imagination of the financial system has more practical significance. The tenth anniversary is coming. How will you commemorate it? Will you buy a pizza?
The First Digital Asset Exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com
After the birth of Bitcoin, in addition to mining, the only way to get Bitcoin in the early days was to conduct transactions on forums or IRC (commonly known as Internet Relay Chat). However, this method involves both long transaction time and great security risk.
In March 2010, the first digital asset exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com launched. However, due to lack of liquidity and transaction depth, it disappeared soon after its establishment, but Bitcoinmarket.com opened the era of the operation of the cryptocurrency realm exchange 1.0.


On June 9, 2011, China’s first Bitcoin exchange — Bitcoin China (BTCChina) launched. Its founder, Yang Linke, translated Bitcoin into Chinese “比特币” for the first time. In 2013, China’s bitcoin trading entered the golden age, and exchanges sprung up. China monopolized more than 90% of the world’s bitcoin transactions. Now, if the top three exchanges Binance, Huobi Global, OKEx are the Exchange 2.0, then the index exchange represented by 58COIN called the 3.0 version, leading the trend.
The First Generation of High-Performance Miner — ASIC Miner
When Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin, the only way to get it is to use computers (including home computers) to mine, mainly relying on the CPU to calculate. However, as the value of digital currencies such as Bitcoin has become higher and higher, mining has become an industry with the competition is getting fiercer, accompanied by increasing difficulty of mining. Therefore, hardware performance competition starts.
In July 2012, the genius Jiang Xinyu (Internet nickname is “Friedcat”) from the junior class of the University of Science and Technology declared at the forum that he could make ASIC miners (chips). As far as mining computing power is concerned, ASICs can be tens of thousands or more higher than the same-generation CPUs and GPUs.
At the beginning of 2013, Zhang Nanqian (Pumpkin Zhang), a suspended doctoral student from the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, developed the ASIC miner and named it “Avalon”.


In June 2013, the Friedcat’s miner USB was finally released, and it maintained 20% of the computing power of the entire network.
At the end of 2013, Wu Jihan, used the tens of millions yuan earned from Friedcat through investment, worked together with Jenke group, to develop the Antminer S1. Since then, the miner manufacturer Bitmain began to enter the stage of history.
It is no exaggeration to say that Friedcat and Zhang Nangeng have opened the domestic “mining” era.
The Birthplace of China’s Bitcoin — Garage Coffee
It is not only the “old objects” that record history, but also a place that everyone in the cryptocurrency realm aspires to.
Guo Hongcai once said, “Without no The Garage Café, there will be no cryptocurrency realm today. Since it is a very mysterious place that all waves of people from the café joint together to create today’s digital asset industry.

▲ In March 2013, American student Jake Smith successfully purchased a cup of coffee at The Garage Café with 0.131 bitcoins. This move attracted the attention of CCTV, and it conducted an interview.
Indeed, The Garage Café is the world ’s first entrepreneurial-themed coffee shop. It has been legendary since its establishment in 2011. The Garage Cafét is not only the core coordinate on China’s Bitcoin map, but also the birthplace of the Chinese cryptocurrency circle, where digital asset realm tycoons including Guo Hongcai, Zhao Dong, Li Xiaolai, Li Lin have made their ways.
The development of digital currency is only 11 years old. Through these “old objects”, we review the various stories of this wave of technology together, hoping to help you understand the development process of the digital currency field. Meanwhile, I also remind all practitioners to use history as a mirror and forge ahead.
Website: https://www.58ex.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/58_coin
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/coin.58COIN
Telegram: https://t.me/official58
Medium: https://medium.com/@58coin_blog/
submitted by 58CoinExchange to u/58CoinExchange [link] [comments]

Waltonchain adds GNU General Public License details to code - BUT does the code contain this?

Waltonchain adds GNU General Public License details to code - BUT does the code contain this?
Dear Crypto community,
Yesterday we saw Waltonchain release their Open Source code which resulted in huge criticism regarding the oversight of removing the original copyright to the original codebase, Ethereum Go, on which it is based.
Following this, the team have now updated the code to show the original copyright:
Image from Github
Source: https://github.com/WaltonChain/WaltonChain_Gwtc_Src/blob/mastep2p/rlpx.go?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app
Github: https://github.com/WaltonChain?tab=repositories

I'd like to say thank you to the community for having such strong opinion on this matter, and for all the subreddit admins that assisted in creating clarity toward this. As a global community we should hold every blockchain up to the same standards, and I am grateful that this was shown in regard to the GNU General Public License.

Now that the issue is resolved, and since Waltonchain is currently a hot topic, I implore all the coders and devs out there to delve deep into the code to see exactly what Waltonchain have released. Not just the modification to the eth codebase, but the additional code. What does the code allow?

What we've been told as a community is that the Waltonchain source code has changes that allows for:
  • Security - DASH X11 - Most cryptographic algorithms used in cryptocurrencies use only one hash function for calculation. There are 11 of them in X11, which provides a higher degree of protection against hackers and scams. Waltonchain has customised the DASH X11 hashing algorithm to fit their purpose.
  • More secure than Bitcoin. The Bitcoin algorithm is SHA-256 is based on a previous secure hash algorithm family of standards, namely SHA-2, the hash functions within the X11 algorithm all successfully made it into the second-round in search for a new, more secure standard — SHA-3. Keccak, the function which won the competition and is therefore the new standard on which SHA-3 is based on, can at the very least be considered more secure that SHA-256.
  • Efficiency — Waltonchain have produced ASICs with the equivalent hashing power of 200GPUs (32–40kW) whilst using only 135W, thus helping the parent chain become decentralised
  • PoS aspect works in tandem with PoW, in that it adds a reduced difficulty based on number of coins held and time between blocks. Effectively the longer coins are held and the longer the time between blocks, the lower the difficulty for mining blocks. This again enhances the power efficiency of the network in its entirety.
  • Fast cross-chain searching via Proof of Labour —PoL enables hash values or indices from sub-chains (child chains) to be synced with the parent chain in a ‘cross chain index mechanism’ to enable fast searches for data via the parent chain.
  • Scalibility — Unlimited scalibility due to child chains; each CC is an independent blockchain (or DAG) using its own consensus mechanism (PoS, PoA, PoW, PoeT, etc) and can store data within itself. The parent chain by nature therefore cannot become bloated.
  • Atomic Swaps — PoL by nature ensures a record of every inter-chain transaction is held, and allows the function of atomic swaps between currencies.

Also to note is that the code has been audited by Knownsec, the same company that audited projects like HPB and NANO.

Lets have an open dialogue and talk about these features of the code - but firstly, do they exist? Hopefully people will approach this with the same enthusiasm as they did yesterday.

EDIT 1st June: A user on the Waltonchain sub has done an analysis which by the looks of it, disproves the initial assessment by many of the 'blockchain experts' in cc that have said the open source code is simply a copy and paste . https://www.reddit.com/waltonchain/comments/bveqea/changeset_goethereum_v171_to_gwtc_v110/
It is interesting to see just how much people love to hate Waltonchain that they spread misinformation either intentionally, or unintentionally, and that it gets the most attention out of any announcement.

For reference:
Block explorer: www.Waltonchain.pro (all wallets, mining wallet, documentation etc is available via that link)
submitted by Yayowam to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Litecoin Difficulty Calculators are misleading. The proper approach to difficulty increases and new hardware ROI calculations.

Going through thread after thread I am consistently seeing a common misconception. The proper way to look at mining rig ROI rates is brought up in various places, but it is clearly being ignored en mass (i.e. the nooblets out there swarming in on our society).
Calculators like these below are simple calculations based on the current difficulty. http://www.litecoinminingcalculator.com/ http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/litecoin-mining-calculator https://www.litecoinpool.org/calc
These provide a number of outputs revenue rates over different time scales.. Hr, Day, Month..year.. Which makes them very very misleading.
Let's walk through a couple scenarios and asses the current situation of the network, what difficulty rate increases are 'possible' and how hardware availability has an effect.
Example Scenario
If I were to pick up a Radeon 280x and get it hasing at ~700Kh (let's assume free electricity for the examples). One of these calculators would output the following:
0.36 LTC / Day 10.75 LTC / Month 130.88 LTC / Year
Often times you see someone buying some new mining equip saying - oh s*&^ I can drop $300 on a new card and earn 10.75 LTC in a month. Leading to the assumption the hardware will pay itself off in just 1 month's time.
However - reality quickly hits once you look at the network difficulty increases. The Litecoin network normalizes the difficulty every 2016 blocks such that the next 2016 blocks will have an estimated solution time of 3.5 days. Thus the difficulty will increase or decrease based on the network hashrate roughly ever 3.4-3.6 days (you should all know this - if you don't - read up https://litecoin.info/Main_Page).
Past difficulty increases have been between -14.82% and 20% with the last two increases being >13% - the largest 7 day increase in difficulty ever (source: http://bitcoinwisdom.com/litecoin/difficulty - bottom of the page). With the recent increase in LTC/USD and LTC/BTC prices - GPUs have been flying off the shelves and it is a generally accepted assumption that we will see a large network hashrate increase in the near future.
If we see similar ~10% difficulty increases every 3.5 days - we will be at a difficulty of 4600 in 1 month and 312000 in 2 months. The propagation of a 700Kh miner output is shown in the table here from my own calculator.
STABLE DIFFICULTY INCREASE SPEED 700 KH/s LTC/USD 40 $ DIFFICULTY JUMP/2016 Blocks 10% Time between Diff Jumps 3.5
 ** Date Dificulty LTC/DAY LTCNetU SDNet** 12/3/2013 1964 0.36 1.25 49.90 12/6/2013 2160 0.32 2.38 95.26 12/10/2013 2376 0.29 3.41 136.50 12/13/2013 2614 0.27 4.35 173.99 12/17/2013 2875 0.24 5.20 208.07 12/20/2013 3163 0.22 5.98 239.05 12/24/2013 3479 0.20 6.68 267.22 12/27/2013 3827 0.18 7.32 292.82 12/31/2013 4210 0.17 7.90 316.10 1/3/2014 4631 0.15 8.43 337.26 1/7/2014 5094 0.14 8.91 356.50 1/10/2014 5604 0.12 9.35 373.99 1/14/2014 6164 0.11 9.75 389.89 1/17/2014 6780 0.10 10.11 404.34 1/21/2014 7458 0.09 10.44 417.48 1/24/2014 8204 0.09 10.74 429.43 1/28/2014 9025 0.08 11.01 440.29 1/31/2014 9927 0.07 11.25 450.16 2/4/2014 10920 0.06 11.48 459.13 
If the difficulty jumps are a consistent 15% the story is grim and the output is as follows - the card should ROI sometime at the end of January. Unless you factor in electricity at ~$1 USD/day...
STABLE DIFFICULTY INCREASE SPEED 700 KH/s LTC/USD 40 $ DIFFICULTY JUMP/2016 Blocks 15% Time between Diff Jumps 3.5 ** Date Dificulty LTC/DAY LTCNet USDNet** 12/3/2013 1964 0.36 1.25 49.90 12/6/2013 2259 0.31 2.33 93.29 12/10/2013 2597 0.27 3.28 131.02 12/13/2013 2987 0.23 4.10 163.83 12/17/2013 3435 0.20 4.81 192.36 12/20/2013 3950 0.18 5.43 217.16 12/24/2013 4543 0.15 5.97 238.74 12/27/2013 5224 0.13 6.44 257.50 12/31/2013 6008 0.12 6.85 273.81 1/3/2014 6909 0.10 7.20 287.99 1/7/2014 7945 0.09 7.51 300.33 1/10/2014 9137 0.08 7.78 311.05 1/14/2014 10508 0.07 8.01 320.38 1/17/2014 12084 0.06 8.21 328.49 1/21/2014 13897 0.05 8.39 335.54 1/24/2014 15981 0.04 8.54 341.67 1/28/2014 18378 0.04 8.68 347.00 1/31/2014 21135 0.03 8.79 351.64 2/4/2014 24305 0.03 8.89 355.67 2/7/2014 27951 0.03 8.98 359.18 2/11/2014 32144 0.02 9.06 362.23 2/14/2014 36965 0.02 9.12 364.88 2/18/2014 42510 0.02 9.18 367.18 2/21/2014 48887 0.01 9.23 369.19 2/25/2014 56220 0.01 9.27 370.93 2/28/2014 64653 0.01 9.31 372.45 
However..if we see a few 20% increases in the near term and then smaller increases therafter this story is not so ideal. Factor in electricity and you're likely to never make ROI.
VARIABLE DIFFICULTY INCREASE SPEED 700 KH/s LTC/USD 40 $ Time between Diff Jumps 3.5 **%Incr Date Dificulty LTC/DAY LTCNet USDNet** 12/3/2013 1964 0.36 1.25 49.90 20% 1/6/2013 2357 0.30 2.29 91.48 20% 12/10/2013 2828 0.25 3.15 126.13 20% 12/13/2013 3394 0.21 3.88 155.01 20% 12/17/2013 4073 0.17 4.48 179.07 20% 12/20/2013 4887 0.14 4.98 199.12 20% 12/24/2013 5864 0.12 5.40 215.84 20% 12/27/2013 7037 0.10 5.74 229.76 20% 12/31/2013 8445 0.08 6.03 241.37 2% 1/3/2014 8614 0.08 6.32 252.74 2% 1/7/2014 8786 0.08 6.60 263.90 2% 1/10/2014 8962 0.08 6.87 274.83 2% 1/14/2014 9141 0.08 7.14 285.55 2% 1/17/2014 9324 0.08 7.40 296.06 2% 1/21/2014 9510 0.07 7.66 306.37 2% 1/24/2014 9700 0.07 7.91 316.47 2% 1/28/2014 9894 0.07 8.16 326.38 2% 1/31/2014 10092 0.07 8.40 336.09 2% 2/4/2014 10294 0.07 8.64 345.61 2% 2/7/2014 10500 0.07 8.87 354.94 2% 2/11/2014 10710 0.07 9.10 364.09 2% 2/14/2014 10924 0.06 9.33 373.06 2% 2/18/2014 11143 0.06 9.55 381.86 
The above examples assume a steady difficulty increase from now until forever - which as the past would suggest - is unlikely (LTC diff historically jumps all over the place with many near zero changes and some large positive/negative changes. The average diff change in the past 6 months is ~+2.3%).
There are only so many GPUs being manufactured, only so many miners mining LTC over another crypto at any one time and there is of course downtime for hardware issues. To assume there will be a 15% increase from now until the end of February every 3.5 days resulting in a difficulty 32X what it is now which may not sound unreasonable (65,000) - but in my opinion unlikely. Lets take a look at some numbers..
If The network hashrate reflecst the influx of new GPUs - it is therefore related to the number of GPUs produced and sold / unit time.
If there have been 100,000 GPUs sold and put online in the next month with an average hash rate of 500Kh/s running 24/7 the hashrate would roughly double. (increase by 50,000 GH/s)
1 million GPUs added to the network would increase the hashrate by roughly 500MH/s or 10x what it currently is now - bringing the difficulty to approximately 20,000. This still does not reach the 15% increase rate of 65,000 by the end of February - so you must ask yourself.. is a skyrocketing difficulty based on added recent interest reasonable?
From the 3rd example where the network hashrate increases in the short term and levels off in the long term - We only need to see an influx of 4-5X the current network hashrate before the end of December to increase the difficulty enough such that in the long term ROI may not be possible. This is the equivalent of ~400k GPUs.
So I employ you to ask yourself a few of the following questions
Just a bit of food for thought. Realistically calculate your ROI and proceed under the impression there are many new miners hopping on this bandwagon in the near term. Take comments that say "Diff is going to go through the rooooooof" skeptically and ask yourself what lies within 'reason'.
This all of course assumes a stable price at or near $40/LTC which is subject to great fluctuations. However, IMO the real way to judge a miner's ROI is by the # of coins it produces vs. the intiail cost of the hardware in coins at purchase. I.e.
Cheers.
EDIT 1: Two good calculator alternatives.
EDIT 2: Let's take a look at mining pools shall we?
At the time of posting per: https://www.litecoinpool.org/pools - the top 3 pools contain roughly 60% of the network hashrate. If you visit their pages we can deduce a bit of information about how many people are mining and rough orders hashrate magnitude.
http://wemineltc.com/stats https://coinotron.com/coinotron/AccountServlet?action=statistics
At wemineltc there are ~26000 workers outputting a total HR of 14.7 GH. At Coinotron the number of miners is not disclosed, however the top 20 miners account for 16% of the total pool HR. At LiteGardian there are 5118 miners outting a total HR of 9.2 GH.
So making a few assumptions - there are roughly 50-60k workers on the top 3 pools with ~60% of the network hashrate and 5-6% of that hashrate comes from only 20 miners. To continue, If there are 50,000 workers (rounding down) outputting ~50GH (rounding way up) - this is an average HR of 1MH/worker. (Still talking about the top 60% of the HR in the top 3 pools). But we know that ~2GH comes from 20 miners - and there are many people mining with rigs <2 top end GPUs - mining is certainly a 'top heavy' economy.
Now you must ask - how many workers does each miner run.. etc. I estimate that this approximate 50k workers equates to less than 25k individual miners. So ~25k miners have constitute the top 60% of the network hashrate and have an average of ~2Mh each.
How many people are LTC mining on dedicated rigs? Part time on gaming rigs? To me, looking at a number of ~1,000,000 people mining LTC at this time is far fetched and lies somewhere in the lower order of magnitude.. maybe 50-100k people on the entire network.
Back to my previous examples.. how many GPUs must sell and come online to increase the hashrate.. and how many new miners?
If every miner gets 1 new GPU hashing at 500KH and the number of miners triples and new miners have an average of 4 500KH GPUs... 25k * 500KH + 25k * 2000KH + 60GH (current rate) = 172GH network rate. (This would be ~300,000 new 500KH GPUs on the network)
I can see the network hashrate increasing 2-5 times in the near future (2-4 months), but without the advent of a new technology that increases hashrates significantly I believe the limiting factor will be two fold. New miners and quantity of available new GPUs.
Edit 3.
New analysis here: http://www.reddit.com/litecoinmining/comments/1s88ka/ltc_difficulty_predictions_an_alternative_method/
submitted by Simonsaid2 to litecoin [link] [comments]

What is Cryptocurrency Mining?

There are various ways of gaining cryptocurrencies and one major way is through cryptocurrency mining. So, Cryptofactsbc will help you understand what is cryptocurrency Mining and how to mine these cryptos. There is nothing to worry about because we will give you everything you need to know about cryptocurrency mining and suggest some steps to follow if you want to mine cryptocurrencies. Let us dig into our topic for the day, What is cryptocurrency Mining?

Understanding Mining

When we take Gold Mining for example miners go into pits to dig for Gold, others use machines one the surface on the lands to detect possible places where Gold will be located.. They find and wash the gold and refine it and get it ready to be sold. That is how Gold mining is done in the real world but when we come to the crypto world it is slightly different. For our fiat currency, the government decides the quantity to be printed and when to print and circulate them because it is centralised.

Cryptocurrency Mining

Cryptocurrency Mining is the process where by verified transactions are added to a ledger which is known as Blockchain. Crypto coins are decentralized therefore no authority or government persons can order for the circulation of cryptos. Mining Cryptocoins is an arms race that rewards early adopters. Anyone can participate in mining provided they have the necessary materials to start.
I am pretty sure you have heard pf Bitcoins, the first decentralised cryptocurrency that was released in early 2009. Similar digital currencies have crept into the world-wide market since then, including a spin-off from Bitcoin called Bitcoin Cash. You can get in on the cryptocurrency rush if you take the time to learn the basics properly.

Methods of Cryptocurrency Mining

There are various ways of mining and we will look a few methods; Cloud Mining Basically these are some of the cryptocurrencies that can be mined, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Thether, Bitcoin Cash and others. The main cryptocurrency we will talk about it’s mining is Bitcoin. Cloud Mining is process whereby miners pay money to rent some hardware from a host company. A company owns bitcoin hardware and then gives them out on rent so miners in-turn rent part of these bitcoin hardware and utilize them remotely.

CPU Mining

The use of Central Processing Unit of your computer, which is the brain of your computer was the very first method people adopted for mining bitcoins when bitcoins were first launched in the year 2009. Back then the mining difficulty was very low so just your CPU could help your gain some huge fractions of Bitcoins. But as stuff were advancing the mining difficulty increase and became higher so people started to look for something better and higher than a normal CPU.

GPU Mining

When technology was advancing, Graphics Processing Units were created. They are programmable electronic chip or circuit that helps the computer to solve complex problems. Most Especially for gamer to be to install games with high graphics requirements on the computer. GPU become very popular therefore people began to use them to mine for bitcoins and amazingly the mining power of 1 GPU equals about 30 CPUs. So, in order for you to gain higher fractions of bitcoins as mine you need to upgrade whiles the system also advances.

FPGA Mining

Another invention came into the system to out smart the GPU mining which was the FPGA. It is an integrated circuit that also helps the computer to carry out a set of calculations. It is almost 10- 100 times better and faster than GPU mining.

ASIC Mining

The full meaning of ASIC is Application Specific Integrated Circuit and it was a breed of miner that was introduced in the year 2019. The sole purpose of this ASIC was to mine bitcoins so you can imagine how fast it would be.
submitted by cryptofactsbc to u/cryptofactsbc [link] [comments]

Casual Ryzen 3600 miner, sanity check

I mined a few bitcoins back in the day before GPUs and ASICs were a thing, but I haven't thought about mining until this week when I read about Monero and the RandomX hard fork. I know crypto mining on consumer hardware isn't going to make anyone rich, but I ran some calculations to see if I could offset some costs of my current setup with mining. Since I'm new to Monero I thought I'd run this by more experienced miners to make sure I'm not way off base.
I have a pretty basic Ryzen 5 3600 (ASRock B450M, Corsair LPX 3000MHz CL15) setup for my homelab (virtualization, storage, Plex, etc). Most of the time the CPU usage is under 10% with occasional spikes for Plex transcoding or if I'm testing something in my virtual lab. Idle power usage at the UPS is about 80W, under full CPU load it spikes to 120-140W. My thought here is that only the difference in power usage (40-60W) should count toward the mining calculations since the server will be running 24/7 whether I'm mining or not.
Based on some conservative numbers of 5kH/s and 60W at $0.10/KWh (and assuming constant price and difficulty, not accurate I know) it looks like I could make about $6/month or $50/year. If I calculate with the full 140W it comes out to a few dollars per year, so theoretically mining with spare CPU could cover my server operating costs.
Any pitfalls or gotchas I'm not considering here? I already own the hardware so I'm not looking for ROI there, just wondering if it's possible to recoup operating costs in USD by mining Monero.
submitted by DancesWithBulbs to MoneroMining [link] [comments]

Help a beginner?

So I recently got into bitcoin and I wanted to know what hardware should I start with? I want to make sure I can break even with my electric bill at most by the end of the month. And after that, I would like to know of a good mining pool (or group? I don't know the official term.) Thanks in advance for anyone that decides to help!
submitted by NetherFall to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

CODE FUD: Resolved.

Dear Waltonchain community,
Yesterday we saw Waltonchain release their Open Source code which resulted in huge criticism regarding the oversight of removing the original copyright to the original codebase, Ethereum Go, on which it is based.
Following this, the team have now updated the code to show the original copyright:
Source: https://github.com/WaltonChain/WaltonChain_Gwtc_Src/blob/mastep2p/rlpx.go?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app
Github: https://github.com/WaltonChain?tab=repositories

I'd like to say thank you to the community for having such strong opinion on this matter, and for all the subreddit admins that assisted in creating clarity toward this. As a global community we should hold every blockchain up to the same standards, and I am grateful that this was shown in regard to the GNU General Public License.

Now that the issue is resolved, and since Waltonchain is currently a hot topic, I implore all the coders and devs out there to delve deep into the code to see exactly what Waltonchain have released. Not just the modification to the eth codebase, but the additional code. What does the code allow?

What we've been told as a community is that the Waltonchain source code has changes that allows for:

Also to note is that the code has been audited by Knownsec, the same company that audited projects like HPB and NANO.

Lets have an open dialogue and talk about these features of the code - but firstly, do they exist? Hopefully people will approach this with the same enthusiasm as they did yesterday.

For reference:
Block explorer: www.Waltonchain.pro (all wallets, mining wallet, documentation etc is available via that link)
submitted by Yayowam to waltonchain [link] [comments]

Viability of small at home mining?

I was browsing around and saw a listing for the AntMiner S7, which is available on Amazon for $749. Throwing the available numbers into a bitcoin mining calculator, it says I should expect around $100 a month in profit after paying cost of electricity. What expenses am I not accounting for, or will I really earn back my investment after 7 and a half months?
submitted by xmaslightguy to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Which are your Top 5 favourite coins out of the Top 100? An analysis.

I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year?
Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0
The 12 markets are
  1. Currency 13 coins
  2. Platform 25 coins
  3. Ecosystem 9 coins
  4. Privacy 10 coins
  5. Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
  6. Gaming & Gambling 5 coins
  7. Misc 15 coins
  8. Social Network 4 coins
  9. Fee Token 3 coins
  10. Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
  11. Cloud Computing 3 coins
  12. Stable Coin 2 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue scalability first:
Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Its goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies worldwide. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars.
Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS). In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at at least VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate.
For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet.
With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 with Sharding.
However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove itself resilient and performant.
Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market

Market 1 - Currency:

  1. Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability currently, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability concerns, scalability and high energy use.
  2. Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
  3. Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
  4. Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
  5. Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
  6. IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
  7. Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
  8. Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
  9. Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. They don’t need to pay the network for every time they compute and can also operate with greater privacy. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Of course, the data source could still be hacked, so Aeternity implements a prediction market where users can bet on the accuracy and honesty of incoming data from various oracles.It also uses prediction markets for various voting and verification purposes within the platform. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
  10. Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
  11. Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
  12. Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
  13. Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte rebalances the load between the five mining algorithms by adjusting the difficulty of each so one algorithm doesn’t become dominant. The algorithm's asymmetric difficulty has gained notoriety and been deployed in many other blockchains.DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. It’s still a relatively obscure currency compared its competitors. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
  14. Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat

Market 2 - Platform

Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
  1. Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka Plasma and its Sharding concept.
  2. EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. Highly overvalued right now. However, there are lots of red flags, have dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product.
  3. Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
  4. VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
  5. Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
  6. Stellar: PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
  7. Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
  8. Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
  9. QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
  10. Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments. No big differentiators to the other 20 Ethereums, except that is has a product. That is a plus. Maybe cheap alternative to Ethereum.
  11. LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. However, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
  12. Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
  13. ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
  14. Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
  15. Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
  16. Nxt: Similar to Lisk
  17. Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
  18. Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.16. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
  19. Neblio: Similar to Neo, but 30x smaller market cap.
  20. NEM: Is similar to Neo No marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
  21. Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
  22. Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
  23. Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.

Market 3 - Ecosystem

The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
  1. Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
  2. Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
  3. Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
  4. CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
  5. WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
  6. Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
  7. Aion: Aion is the token that pays for services on the Aeternity platform.
  8. USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.

Market 4 - Privacy

The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
  1. Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
  2. Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
  3. Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
  4. Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
  5. Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
  6. Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
  7. PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
  8. Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
  9. Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
  10. Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.
  11. Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier. However, the question is if full privacy coins will be hindered in growth through government regulations and optional privacy coins will become more successful through ease of use and no regulatory hindrance.

Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool

Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
  1. Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
  2. QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. If the forex conversions and crypto conversions match then the trade will go through and the Worldbook will match it, it'll make the sale and the purchase on either exchange and each user will get what they wanted, which means exchanges with lower liquidity if they join the Worldbook will be able to fill orders and take trade fees they otherwise would miss out on.They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners. More info here https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/8a8lnwhich_are_your_top_5_favourite_coins_out_of_the/dwyjcbb/?context=3
  3. Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
  4. Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
  5. Req: Exchange between cryptocurrencies.
  6. Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
  7. Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets.
  8. ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.

Market 6 - Gaming

With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
  1. Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
  2. Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
  3. Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
  4. Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items

Market 7 - Misc

There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
  1. OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
  2. Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
  3. Populous: A platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest. Similar to OMG, small market.
  4. Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
  5. Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
  6. Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
  7. Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
  8. Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
  9. TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
  10. Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
  11. Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
  12. BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
  13. Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
  14. Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
  15. Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .

Market 8 - Social network

Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
  1. Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
  2. Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
  3. Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
  4. Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.

Market 9 - Fee token

Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
  1. BNB: Fee token for Binance
  2. Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
  3. Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin

Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage

Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester., he requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
  1. Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
  2. Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
  3. Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, SAFE’s network uses advanced P2P technology to bring together the spare computing capacity of all SAFE users and create a global network. You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. All data and applications reside in this network. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. The data is then randomly distributed across the network. Redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
  4. Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.

Market 11 - Cloud computing

Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
  1. Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
  2. Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.

Market 12 - Stablecoin

Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
  1. DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
  2. Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. The baseline is 2 for any crypto. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor.
EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x, PIVX gets a 10 for being as good as Monero while carrying a 10x smaller market cap, which would make PIVX go 100x if Monero goes 10x.
submitted by galan77 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Last year Bitfury’s multidisciplinary Blockchain specialists announced the possibility of revealing the identities of more than 16% of all owners of Bitcoin addresses. Several years ago, a team of CryptoLux developers, having conducted a study of transaction privacy on the Bitcoin network, concluded that 60% of all addresses can be deanonymized. Summarizing all this, it’s worth highlighting three existing methods that can successfully deanonymize private transactions.

Clustering

The easiest way to cluster (link Bitcoin addresses) is by analyzing transactional networks. In other words, this is a method that allows finding several inputs combined in one transaction. The second clustering method is “distribution analysis”. It allows calculation the percentage of cryptocurrency at the certain address that comes from another specific address and it becomes clear whether these addresses are connected by one direct transaction or a chain of transactions or not.

Graph analysis

It consists of quantitative and temporal analyzes. Quantitative analysis studies not certain transactions, but amounts. Time analysis tracks specific periods.

Memory Pool Method

When a transaction is made through the user’s wallet, the input nodes send information about the transaction to the Blockchain network. The purpose of this method is to identify the set of input nodes through the wallet and the user. In this case, the IP address of the client can be associated with its transactions. There are certain private cryptocurrency-leaders which are popular and trusted among users. Using one feature-privacy, they have different ways of functioning.

Basic principles of work: anonymous cryptocurrencies (Monero, Dash, Zcash)

Monero

The platform focuses on privacy and decentralization. The coin uses three levels of protection:
• Ring signatures, that hide the origin of the sender by mixing the user’s address with the addresses of other group members. • Ring confidential transactions, which hide the amount of the transaction. • Stealth addresses, that allow a user to hide the recipient’s address.
Such way guarantees the privacy of the sender and the recipient. Monero can be bought on Poloniex, Bitfinex, Livecoin, and Kraken crypto exchanges. It is possible to store Monero via an online wallet. More secure is its computer wallet. Due to its privacy, the popularity of the coin is expected to grow, so it makes sense to add a coin to an investment portfolio.
Advantages
• Increased privacy. Cryptocurrency is suitable for those who are afraid of deanonymizing network transactions. • Unlimited and difficult mining. • It takes less time to find blocks. • Resistance to the centralization of mining capacities.
Disadvantages
• Resources. All currency protection technologies require impressive machine performance for normal operation. The Monero block size is constantly growing, and this requires additional resources of network participants. • The popularity in the dark web leads to problems in working with regulatory authorities, exchanges often delist it. Speaking of reputation, Monero’s reputation is far from the best. The coin is often used on the dark web as payment for various illegal services. It happens to almost all crypto coins that provide privacy. • Large transaction sizes. Since Monero Blockchain is five times larger than the Bitcoin Blockchain in terms of one transaction. • Problems with scalability.

Dash

The Dash platform is a classic decentralized Blockchain-based payment system and the most technologically advanced cryptocurrency. It implements multi-off-chain money transfers without loss of reliability and overall security of the Blockchain. Its confidentiality is rather an additional option that can be used optionally. In the case of anonymity, it is possible to send a hidden transaction, but at a more expensive cost, which also requires additional time. Dash developed a hashing algorithm with eleven cryptographic functions-X 11 for the first time. The coin developers have released apps for other platforms. Today it is possible to use Dash for IOS, Zeal for Linux, LovelyDocs for Android and Velocity for Windows.
As well known, the CoinJoin is an anonymization method for crypto transactions, which is used by Dash as an improved version called the PrivateSend. Its mixing sessions are limited to 1,000 DASH for each session and will require multiple mixing sessions to anonymize a large amount of money.
Advantages
• High transaction speed. It is achieved via InstantX technology, which enables the confirmation of operations in less than 4 seconds. • Law transaction fees. • Energy consumption. Unlike Monero, it does not require a lot of power or high commission costs.
Disadvantages
• “Transparency” of the network. Without triggering the “mixing” mechanism, the directions of transactions and their balances are publicly visible to everyone. • Lack of proper cryptographic technologies that provide privacy, but can provide a sufficiently high level of protection. • Transaction visibility to the founders and the team.

Zcash

An open-source decentralized cryptocurrency that provides users with maximum privacy. Zcash is the first private cryptocurrency, using cryptographic protocol zk-SNARKS, a zero-knowledge security layer. It allows users to make hidden and open transactions.
Mathematically guaranteed privacy is something cryptocurrency can not be proud of. This fact makes the currency specific. All Zcash coins are identical, it means that interchangeable coins do not contain information about past use created. In this regard, the connection of coins with their history on the Blockchain is broken, which makes them universal and identical to each other. Zcash blocks are generated 4 times faster than Bitcoin. The currency trades on Huobi, Bitfinex and Binance exchanges, and after purchase, it can be stored on the exchange’s internal wallet, as well as transferred to Jaxx, Cryptonator and Coinomi multi-currency wallets. Coins can also be stored on hardware wallets like Ledger and Trezor.
Advantages
• Privacy. Since no information except the time stamp, is recorded in the Blockchain, transactions cannot be tracked, and the identity of the sender and recipient is almost impossible to establish. • Interchangeability. Due to interchangeability, all coins have a “clean” history. This means that it is practically impossible to determine which transactions coin was used. • Security. Lack of information about user keys, which protects user wallets and the network.Mining energy efficiency. Zcash mining hardware consumes less electricity than Bitcoin mining ASICs. • The difficulty of mining. Zcash is beneficial for those who want to get coins for block creation. Bitcoin mining becomes more and more complicated, so miners cannot earn enough money via their computers with high capacity.
Disadvantages
• 6 users can decide to leave the transferred data completely open. • It takes a lot of calculations to complete a transaction. • Insecurity. There are fears that the system could be hacked, or users may accidentally open the data. • Legally ZCash is supported only by Linux, however, it provides users with wallets for other platforms: Jaxx, Ledger, Trezor, Trust, Zecwallet, Ibitcome, Exodus, Guarda, Coinomi, Cobowallet, and Bitgo.
Private cryptocurrencies are necessary for anyone who values the privacy and confidentiality of financial transactions. Privacy can generate more value, than danger, as Eric Hughes says: “Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world”.
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Newcomer here, is it too late for me to join a mining operation and is the investment in an asic miner worth it?

submitted by jc10189 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

RedFury 2.6GH USB miner now available

RedFury 2.6GH USB miner now available submitted by QuasiSteve to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A new theory for bitcoin valuation

Hey everyone, I'm a finance graduate student with some experience trading crypto (majority bitcoin) since 2013. While prices have skyrocketed and created huge returns for holders, eventually, an actual understanding of bitcoin's valuation will have to emerge. My theory, and this may have been said by others, is that the cost of a bitcoin should approach the level where the award for mining a block equals the cost of mining that block. As classic economic models predict, as more firms (miners in this case) enter the market, they will be willing to work for less and less money, as long as they still cover the cost of electricity and computer chips. While I have no prediction when bitcoin will hit this level, I can say it is the lowest price that miners would be willing to accept, and therefore at least a floor on the price of BTC. Please share your thoughts and help improve this theory, thank you.
submitted by Pleased2MeteosYou to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

check bitcoin transactions - bitcoin mining difficulty ... Does Bitcoin Use Gpu Bitcoin Calculator  Is Bitcoin Money? Must See Max Keiser Video Best Bitcoin Client Will Bitcoin Recover

Crypto-Coinz Calculator Info. Nvidia Cards / AMD Cards - Select the number of cards you have. Exchange buttons - Select the exchanges from which you want to get price information. Major exchanges are used to get BTC price. You can disable. exchanges that you don't want to BTC price to be taken from and leave Coin market Cap to use a mean value for the BTC market. Algorithm buttons - activate ... Accurate Bitcoin mining calculator trusted by millions of cryptocurrency miners since May 2013 - developed by an OG Bitcoin miner looking to maximize on mining profits and calculate ROI for new ASIC miners. Updated in 2020, the newest version of the Bitcoin mining calculator makes it simple and easy to quickly calculate mining profitability for your Bitcoin mining hardware. Calculate how profitable it is to ASIC mine selected altcoins in comparison to bitcoin $12,949.54 $65.73 $413.92 $127.26 $5.64 $75.95 $54.47 Follow @WhatToMine dark mode GPU The difficulty depends on the total amount of computational power in the network. Simply put, the more people (or hardware) is mining Bitcoin, the higher the difficulty becomes. Since there is no telling how fast and how much difficulty will rise in future, this is the speculation part in Bitcoin mining. There are people attempting to estimate ... What is the most profitable coin to mine? With our crypto calculator you will easily find profit coins for you hardware. Simply choose your GPU or ASIC hardware or set custom hashrate.

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